Mr Jack Robert Edmunds-Coopey
BA English Literature and History (University of Leicester), MLitt Intellectual History (University of St Andrews), PhD Candidate German (Durham University)
|PhD Research in the School of Modern Languages and Cultures|
As a PhD German Studies candidate at Durham University, my doctoral work concerns the Concept of Totality: Visions of the Whole in the Work of Fredric Jameson (2016--). I read English Literature and History at the University of Leicester (2012-2015). I worked with Ian Harris on an dissertation on Locke and the State of Nature which consolidated my interests in philosophy of history and literature. After my bachelor, I undertook a Masters of Letters in Intellectual History at the University of St Andrews (2015-2016) working with Caroline Humfress on essays concerning Derrida, Badiou's and Nietzsche's Saint Paul, and a masters thesis on Foucault in the College de France lectures.
PhD Thesis (2016--) -- The Concept of Totality: Visions of the Whole in the Work of Fredric Jameson
Teaching Assistant (2019-2020) in European Philosophy, Kantian and Post-Kantian Philosophy,
(Kant, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Lacan, Zizek)
Philosophical Traditions, Philosophy Department, (Analytic philosophy and method, Logic,Continental Philosophy, Feminist and Post-colonial philosophy) University of Durham
Modern Philosophy I, Descartes on substance, Locke on perception, Leibniz on metaphysics and free will, Berkeley’s idealism, Spinoza's metaphysics, Hume on causation and religion, Women and early modern philosophy
Digital Studies Network | Real Smart Cities Network | Centre for Cultural Ecologies
- Intellectual History, History of Philosophy, Political Philosophy, History of Political Thought, Enlightenment Studies, Poststructuralism
- Durham Centre for Law and Philosophy
- Durham Centre for Law and Philosophy
- Stefan, Breuer (Forthcoming). Die radikale Rechte in Deutschland 1871-1945. Historical Materialism
- (Accepted). Horst Friedrich, Hegels Wissenschaft der Logik, Ein marxistischer Kommentar, Zweiter Teil, Dietz Berlin, 2006 (1/3). Historical Materialism
- Coopey, Robert Jack (Accepted). Geoffrey Bennington: Kant on the Frontier: Philosophy, Politics, and the Ends of the Earth. Phenomenological Reviews
- Antenhofer, Christina (Accepted). Fetisch als heuristische Kategorie, Geschichte, Rezeption, Interpretation. Historical Materialism
- (Forthcoming). The Bloomsbury Companion to Marx. Marx & Philosophy Review of Books
- Coopey, Robert, Jack (2017). The Death Penalty – Volumes I & II, The Seminars of Jacques Derrida. Phenomenological Reviews
Chapter in book
- (Accepted). Eclipses: Heidegger and Barfield, the 'Letting-Speak' of Poetry and the Transcendental Imagination, An Uncanny Resemblance. In CALL FOR BOOK CHAPTERS: OWEN BARFIELD IN CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
- (Accepted), Theodicy of Imperfections: Kant’s Natural, Unnatural and Supernatural Critique of Leibniz’s Unitary mode of Logical Forces, the BSECS 49th Annual Conference “Natural, Unnatural and Supernatural” of the British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies. St Hugh's College, University of Oxford.
- (Accepted), An Absolute of Literature as Negative Theology: The Literary Absolute (1988) and Jean-Luc Nancy's Philosophical Method, Thinking about Nothing: Negation, Philosophy and the Mystical The conference is jointed organised with The Association for Continental Philosophy. University of Oxford, 3rd-5th July 2020.
- (Accepted), Gigantomachia: Totality and Truth: Visions of the Whole as Truth in the Work of Fredric Jameson, Sixteenth Annual Conference. Claps of Thunder: Disaster Communism, Extinction Capitalism and How to Survive Tomorrow. 7th 10th November 2019 SOAS, Russell Square, Central London.
- (Accepted), Perergons: The Metanormative Aesthetics of Continental Metaphilosophy, A Phenomenology of Emotions, The Consortium of European Research on Emotion (CERE). Glasgow, Scotland.
- (Accepted), Theodicy of Theogony: The Decadence of Enlightenment Value-Meanings, Humanism of the Death Camps, Workshop: Primo Levi and Jean Améry: Auschwitz and the Possibility of Enlightenment Secular Humanism. King's College, London.
- (Accepted), Body and Corporeality in Ancient Philosophy – Foucault and the Space and Time of Subjectivity in the Collège de France Lectures (1970-1984), 'Time, Space and Culture' International Conference. 15-16 February 2020 St. Anne's College, University of Oxford.
- (Accepted), Perergons: The Normative Aesthetics of Continental Metaphilosophy, Call for abstracts - The Future of Normativity - Kent - June 2018. University of Kent, England.
- (Forthcoming), Hospitalities: The Question of Technology and Modernity, Alienation and Being, A Shadow of Nostalgia from Walter Benjamin, Cambridge French Graduate Conference 2017 #NousSommes. Cambridge, England.
- Coopey, Robert Jack (Accepted), The Hammerings of Heavens: Totality, The Spirituality of the Whole and Religiosity of the Sublime in German Romanticism, CFP: Particularizing Secularism, Secularity, and Nonreligion conference CfP - King's College London - July 2018. King's College, London.
- (Forthcoming), Behemoth: Benjamin's Critique of Violence, Deconstructing the Concept of Violence. Law and Power in Heidegger, Benjamin, Derrida and Foucault 18-19 May 2017 Spring School. University of Halle (Martin Luther Universität), Germany.
- (Accepted), Impotence of Nature's Disease: Health and Wellbeing in German Idealism, Fourth Annual Wolfson Research Institute for Health and Wellbeing Early Career Researcher Conference. University of Durham, England.
- (Accepted), The Ethics of Evil: Teleology and Foucault, SEP-FEP 2018 - Society for European Philosophy and Forum for European Philosophy Joint Conference. University of Essex, England.
- (Accepted), Hospitalities: A Critique of Giorgio Agamben's Homo Sacer and Alain Badiou's Theory of the Subject towards a nihilistic ethics of resistance, 2018 Ian Ramsey Centre Summer Conference Transhumanism, Posthumanism and Super-Naturalism Mathematical Institute and Egrove Park, Oxford, 6-7 July 2018. University of Oxford, England.
- (Accepted), An Absolute of Literature as Event: The Literary Absolute (1988) and Jean-Luc Nancy's Philosophical Literature , Literature and Event: Reformulations of the Literary in the 21st Century A one-day interdisciplinary conference Saturday 15th February 2020. University of Warwick, England.
- (Accepted), The Origins of Legal Positivism as Natural Law: A Philosophical Account of the Norm of Law and its Exception in Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen, Cambridge Legal Theory Symposium will be held on 14 August 2018 at the University of Cambridge. University of Cambridge, England.
- (2020), The Figure of Romanticism in the work of Jean-Luc Nancy and Jacques Derrida, 7th Derrida Today Conference From border to border, Derrida. Aix Marseille University, Aix-en-Provence and Marseille, France.
- (2020), Derrida's influence on Jean-Luc Nancy: The Literary Absolute (1988) and Jean-Luc Nancy's Philosophical Method as Jena Romanticism, Derrida Today. Schuman Centre, at Aix- Marseille University in Aix-en-Provence, France, from June 10-13, 2020..
- (2019), Totality and the Biology of the Whole: The Biology of the Ape to Man in Marx and Hegel, Biological Thought and the German Left, Bloch Centre for German Thought, London, 17 May 2019. University of London, England.
- (2019), Body and Corporeality in Ancient Philosophy – Foucault and the Ethics of the Self, Fifth Annual Conference of the Centre for the Study of Global Ethics (30-31 May 2019 – University of Birmingham). University of Birmingham, England.
- (2019), Alcuin and Logic: The Task of True Philosophical Thinking in the Carolingian Renaissance in Alcuin's Prologue, BRITAIN'S EARLY PHILOSOPHERS (Durham, April 1-2, 2019). University of Durham.
- (2019), Gigantomachia: The Delay of Time in Jokes in Kant's and Bergson's Metaphysics of Time, BSA Synergy Conference How To Do Things With Jokes, University of Kent, Canterbury, 25-27 October 2019. University of Kent, Canterbury
- (2019), Bachelard and the Science of Objectivity in the Life Sciences: An Epistemology of the Absolute as Hegelian Philosophy of Nature, ESHS ESHS First Young Scholars Conference 2019 Transcultural Knowledge 10-12 Sep 2019 Paris (France). Paris Observatory
- (2019), Minor Idealisms: The minoritarian case of H. H. Joachim (1868-1938) and Spinoza's Ethics, a home for the Analytic revolution, 93rd Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association. University of Durham, England.
- (2019), Citadels: The Frankfurt School and its relevance to Undemocratic Regimes, 12th INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL THEORY CONFERENCE OF ROME May 9-11, 2019. John Felice Rome Center of Loyola University Chicago.
- (2019), Artifice: Francisco Suárez and Heidegger's Modernity of Metaphysics, A Baroque contribution to the downfall of Scholastic thought, 'What is the Matter of/with Medieval Philosophy?', International Medieval Congress, Leeds 1-4 July 2019. University of Leeds.
- (2019), Body and Corporeality in Ancient Philosophy – Foucault and the Space and Time of Subjectivity in the Collège de France Lectures (1970-1984), Encounters: the coincidence of space, time, and subjectivity An interdisciplinary conference. 16th-18th September 2019 St John’s College, University of Cambridge.
- (2019), The Hammerings of Heavens: The Inception and Experience of Language in German Idealism (1780-1840), ‘Languages in Society Conference', Modern Languages & Cultures. University of Durham, England.
- (2019), Gigantomachia: Totality and the Surveillance of the Global: Visions of the Whole as Modernity in the Work of Fredric Jameson, Inaugural Interdisciplinary PGR Conference: Global Challenges. University of Durham, England.
- (2019), Predictive Brain and Technics in the Thought of Malabou, Stiegler and Simondon, CFA: X-SPECT’s 3rd Annual Workshop Wilding the Predictive Brain: Prediction, Culture and Context November 1st, 2019 @ University of Sussex. University of Sussex.
- (2019), The Modernity of Technology: Benjamin's Arcades and Baudelaire's Paris, Between the Constellation and the Auratic, Benjamin’s Baudelaire – Constellations of Modernity A Workshop for Early Career Researchers. Goldsmiths University of London, England.
- (2018), Pataphilosophy: Phenomenology and Physics as handmaidens, The Promise of a New Science in Deleuze’s History of Philosophy and Hegel’s Science of Logic, “Philosophy of Physics” (AGPhil) of the German Physical Society (DPG), “Reduction and Emergence in Physics”,. TU University of Berlin, Germany
- (2018), Pataphilosophy: Phenomenology and Physics as handmaidens, The Promise of a New Science in Deleuze's History of Philosophy and Hegel's Science of Logic, Annual British Society for Phenomenology Conference. University of Kent, England.
- (2018), Perergons: The Normative Aesthetics of Continental Metaphilosophy, The Future of Normativity University Kent, UK Centre for Practical Normativity. University of Kent, 28th-30th June 2018.
- (2018), Minor Idealisms: The minoritarian case of H. H. Joachim (1868-1938) and Spinoza's Ethics, a home for the Analytic revolution, Spinoza & British Idealism 8 & 9 June 2018. University of St Andrews, Scotland.
- Coopey, Robert Jack (2018), History of Mathematical Objects: Aristotle's and Husserl's conception of matter, form and mind and its relation to Number, 12th London Ancient Science Conference 2018 12th-14th February. Institute of Classical Studies, UCL, England.
- (2018), The Judgement of Reason: The Aesthetics of Art as the Play and Essence of the Human Being in Immanuel Kant as the relation between Freedom and Nature (1724-1804), ECPR, European Consortium for Political Research, General Conference, 2018. Hamburg, Germany.
- (2018), Critique or Violence: Arendt's critique of totalitarianism and Benjamin's violence of the constellation, a Messianism, Fifteenth Annual Historical Materialism conference which is being held 8th to 11th November 2018 at SOAS, University of London. SOAS, University of London, England.
- (2018), The Hammerings of Heavens: Totality, The Spirituality of the Whole and Religiosity of the Sublime in German Idealism and Jena Romanticism (1780-1840), 63rd National PG Colloquium in German Studies (London, 12-13 April 2018). University of London, Senate House, England.
- (2018), Totality and the Living Philosophic Tradition in German Idealism and Jena Romanticism (1780-1840), The Prometheus Trust - 13th Annual conference: 'Living philosophic traditions' June 29th - July 1st, 2018. Mancetter, Warwickshire, UK.
- (2018), Parsimonies: Deconstructions of Feminine Difference and its relation towards a Feminist Method, Challenging Dominant Discourse: Feminist Conversations across Political Science and Political Theory May 22, 2018, 9am-3pm, University of Exeter, Department of Politics. University of Exeter, England.
- (2018), The Empire of the Earth; An Intellectual History of the Concept of Empire, From Akkad to Neoliberalism, The 2018 Telos Europe Conference: The Endurance of Empire. Ragusa, Sicily.
- (2018), Citadels: The Frankfurt School and its relevance to Undemocratic Regimes, Annual Scottish Graduate Classics Conference (held under the auspices of StAGE) Power and the People in Undemocratic Regimes University of Glasgow, 3-4 May 2018. University of Glasgow, Scotland.
- (2018), Macintyre's Marxism and Critical Theory: An inter-disciplinary lesson for future praxis, 2018 Annual Conference Learning from MacIntyre Durham University, UK Call for Papers. Durham, England.
- (2018), Teleology and the History of Religion in Foucault, (British Sociological Association), Sociology of Religion Conference - Religion and Education (Strathclyde University, Glasgow) 2018. Glasgow, Scotland.
- (2018), Parsimonies: Feminine Difference and its Non-Identity towards Resistance and Emancipation in Cixous, Butler, Kristeva and Irigaray, 6th Annual Conference and General Meeting of SWIP-Ireland. 17-19 May, 2018 University College Dublin, Ireland.
- (2017), Obelisks: Benjamin's and Derrida's Messianism in the Utopianism of Scripture and its foundation in the Talmud, Jewish Thought in the Context of World Philosophy. St Petersburg, Russia.
- Coopey, Robert Jack (2017), Inaesthetics: Hegel's Form of Dialectic in the Concept of Totality and its expression in the Absolute, and Marx's Totality as Labour, Capitalism and the Modes of Production, 32nd International Hegel Congress Hegel’s Encyclopaedic System and its Legacy 32nd International Hegel Congress of the International Hegel-Society at the University of Tampere June 5–8, 2018. Tampere Finland.
- (2017), Foucault and the Art of the Self -- Body and Corporeality in Ancient Philosophy, Opera Fieri. Portugal.
- (2017), Avowals: Arendt's Heideggereanism and its deconstruction of authoritarianism, Arendt and Critical Theory Today 2nd Istanbul Critical Theory Conference – in Exile at the Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg*. Oldenburg, Germany.
- (2017), Hourglass Dawns: The Becoming of Time as Space, Contemporary Post-Phenomenological Philosophy and its nemesis of Time in the Work of Agamben, Nancy and Jameson, Materiality of Time: Phenomenology and its Place in Archaeology. Cardiff, Wales.
- (2017), Flows and Plateaus: Henri Bergson's Philosophy of Life and Deleuze's Vitalism, A humanization of the Science of Life, Religion, Society, and the Science of Life, 2017 IRC-ISSR Conference, Oxford, 19-22 July. Oxford.
- (2017), Blessedness: Lenin and the Event of Empirico-Criticism as Praxis, International Conference One Hundred Years That Shook the World: Failures, Legacies, and Futures of the Russian Revolution. St.Gallen, Switzerland.
- (2017), 'The Vigils of Lights: The Question of Europe's Universalism and its Philosophical Timelessness as Undecidability of the Human Subject; Jacques Derrida's Messianism and the Crisis of European Identity as the Debt of Capital and the Time of Liberal Democracy', The European Union and the Politicization of Europe (6th Edition), 11 – 12 December 2017. Florence, Italy.
- (2017), Idea of Form: Lukács and the Theory of the Novel: A Radical Foundation to Theories of Form and towards a Revolutionary Philosophy of Literature, The Legacy of Georg Lukács An International Conference, 27–29 April, 2017. Budapest, Hungary
- (2017), Thorns & Thistles: Recoils of the Subject and its Plateaus of Sensations, A Post-Deleuzian Critique, CAPPE Giving Life to Politics: The Work of Adriana Cavarero. Brighton, England.
- (2017), Holograms: A Critique of Giorgio Agamben's Homo Sacer and Alain Badiou's Theory of the Subject towards a nihilistic ethics of resistance, Beyond Humanism Conference Rome 2017. Rome, Italy
- (2017), Vistas: Foucault and the Birth of the Medical Gaze, A Critique of Western Metaphysics and a comparison to Chinese traditions of Medicine, Biennial Meeting of the European Association for Chinese Philosophy. Basel, Switzerland.
- (2017), The Ethics of Evil: Teleology and Foucault's War on the Self, Teleology - Conceptual Corpse or Plastic Concept? 2017 CRMEP Graduate Conference. London.
- (2017), Critique or Violence: Arendt's critique of totalitarianism and Benjamin's violence of the constellation, a Messianism, 10th International Critical Theory Conference of Rome. Rome, Italy
- (2016), Telluric, An Exposition of Walter Benjamin's contributions to the contemporary understanding of History itself through the philosophical analysis of historical research, Contemporary History Workshop, University of Cambridge. Cambridge, England.
- (2016), The Ethics of Resistance: Sovereignty and Territoriality in Foucault's College de France lectures (1970-1984), Narrating Nation, Sovereignty and Territory. Durham, England.
- (2016), Halos, A Deconstruction of the Critiques of International Political Economy and its Discontents, World (dis)order. St Andrews, Scotland.
- (2016), Against Methodology; The Limits and Boundaries of Historical Knowledge, Discourse and Representation; The Cambridge School; Authorial Intention, Contextualisation and Biographical notes in contrast to the Foucauldian Archaeology, History Department Research Seminar. St Andrews, Scotland.
Device or Product
- (2019). (Collaborator, EU Grant, Philosophical Dilemmas in Ethical and Moral Philosophy) Quarks Interactive Quantum Computing Video Game.
- (Planned). Gigantisms: Heidegger's Black Notebooks and the Meaning of Being to the History of Being as Heimatland and the Writing style of the Denktagebuch. British Society Journal for Phenomenology
- Squires, Claire & Coopey, Jack (Submitted). The Anarchic Life Drive: Freud, Lacan and Stiegler. French Psychoanalysis Society
- (Planned). Minor Idealisms: The minoritarian case of H. H. Joachim (1868-1938) and Spinoza's Ethics, a home for the Analytic revolution. British Journal of the History of Philosophy
- (Planned). Spinoza, Hegel and the Absolute, Origins of the Enlightenment Community. Review of Politics
- (Planned). Totality and German Idealism: The French Reading of a Germanic Ideal. New German Critique
- (Forthcoming). Artifice: Francisco Suárez and Heidegger's Modernity of Metaphysics, A Baroque contribution to the downfall of Scholastic thought. Knowledge, Scholarship, and Science in the Middle Ages (KSS), Brepols Publishers
- (Planned). Totality in Marx and Engels: Biologism and Political Economy. History of Political Thought
- Coopey Robert Jack (Accepted). Citadels: Crisis of Representation as Authoritarian, The Ruling Class in Adorno and Rosanvallon. Philosophy and Public Issues
- Coopey, Robert Jack (Accepted). The Gates of the City: Jean Bodin's Natural Religion and the Concept of Sovereignty and the Demon-Mania of Witches. Special issue on Jean Bodin in Political Theology
- Coopey, Robert Jack (Accepted). Obelisks: Scholem's Messianism in the Utopianism of Scripture. Jewish Thought in the Context of World Philosophy Thematic issue of the Judaica Petropolitana
- Haukedal, Sandnes Rasmus, & Coopey-Edmunds, Robert Jack (Planned). Hegel's Philosophy of Nature: Contemporary Biology and Emergence. Hegel Bulletin 2020, Cambridge University Press
- (Planned). Contributive Economy in Fredric Jameson and Bernard Stiegler. New German Critique
- (Forthcoming). The Power-Play of Seyn (Be-ing) and Esti gar einai (For Being Is Taking Place): A Re- assessment of Heidegger's misreading of Plato's Cosmology and the Power of Metaphysics. New Classicists, King's College London Postgraduate Journal
- (Planned). Plato's Authorial Self and Alcibiades I: Commentaries on the Self in Proclus and Olympiodorus. Ancient Philosophy
- (Planned). The Enlightenment Origins of Knowledge, A Genealogy of Political Knowledge from the East in the cases of Kant and Hegel. Journal of the History of Philosophy
- (2019). Fredric Jameson and the Totality of the Text: A Critique of Empirical Historiogaphy. Philosophy and Literature
- (2019). Walter Benjamin's reading of Charles Baudelaire: The Historicity of Presentism. History and Theory
- (2018). On Marcuse, Phenomenology, and Marxism. Telos, Critical Theory of the Contemporary
- Coopey, Jack Robert (2018). Hourglass dawns: the becoming of time as space – a note on the work of Agamben, Nancy and Jameson. Time and Mind 11(3): 337-342.
- (2018). On Hegel’s Critique of the Noumenal in Kant. Telos, Critical Theory of the Contemporary
- (2018). Juxtaposing the Philosophical Projects of Schmitt and Marcuse, Joseph Diaz’s “Schmitt and Marcuse: Friends, Force, and Quality” from Telos 165 (Winter 2013). Telos Press, Critical Theory of the Contemporary
- (2018). The Hegelian Subject of Corporeal Vulnerability in Butler. Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy
- (2018). Schmitt, Agamben, and Ongoing Founding Events, Jeffrey Bussolini’s “Ongoing Founding Events in Carl Schmitt and Giorgio Agamben” from Telos 157 (Winter 2011). Critical Theory of the Contemporary
- Coopey, J. R. (2017). The Ethics of Resistance: Sovereignty and Territoriality in Foucault's College de France lectures (1970-1984), Narrating Nation, Sovereignty and Territory. Durham, England. Exchanges, Warwick University Research Journal
Other (Digital/Visual Media)
- (2019). (Documentary Film Participant, Hollywood, Durham, 2019) Film Interview by Susan Kuscera, Financial Capitalism and Future Ecology, Centre for Cultural Ecologies. Film.
- (Accepted), The Power-Play of Seyn (Be-ing) and Esti gar einai (For Being Is Taking Place): A Re-assessment of Heidegger's misreading of Plato's Cosmology and the Power of Metaphysics, AMPAL 2019 'Power Play in the Ancient World' Thursday 13th - Friday 14th June 2019. University of Leeds, England.
- (Accepted), The Enlightenment Origins of Knowledge, A Genealogy of Political Knowledge from the East, ISECS International Congress on the Enlightenment 15-19 July 2019. University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
- (2019), Behemoth: Henri Bergson and the Process of Creative Evolution, Alfred Whitehead and Process Philosophy in relation to Developmental bias, Plasticity, Niche Construction and Extra-Genetic Inheritance, Evolution Evolving, Process, Mechanism and Theory. University of Cambridge, 1-4 April 2019.
- (2019), The Sanctuary of the Experience of Seyn (Be-ing) and Esti gar einai (For Being Is Taking Place): A Re-assessment of Heidegger's misreading of Plato's Cosmology and the Greek Temple, Sanctuaries and Experience: Knowledge, Practice and Space in the Ancient World Institute of Classical Studies, Senate House, London 8th–10th April 2019. University of London, England.
- (2019), Gigantomachia: Totality and Truth: Visions of the Whole as Truth in the Work of Fredric Jameson, Association of Philosophy and Literature with Theory, Culture & Society. Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt.
- (2019), Gigantisms: Heidegger's Black Notebooks and the Meaning of Being to the History of Being as Heimatland and the Writing style of the Denktagebuch, On the History of Being – after the Black Notebooks Manchester, UK, from Friday, the 31st of May to Sunday, the 2nd of June, 2019, British Society of Phenomenology. University of Manchester, England.
- (2019), Foucault and Ancient Philosophy of Law, Société Internationale Fernand de Visscher pour l’Histoire des Droits de l’Antiquité. University of Edinburgh from 2 – 7 September 2019.
- (2018), The Concept of Totality: Visions of the Whole in the Works of Fredric Jameson, Matariki, Network of Universities, Partnering for a Better World Borders and Boundaries: Transgression in History and the Present Age Research Workshop, Durham University, 30 November—2 December 2018. Durham University, England.