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Overview

Dr Robert William Banks

Visitor

BSc PhD DSc


Affiliations
AffiliationRoom numberTelephone
Visitor in the Department of Biosciences169+44 (0) 191 33 41254

Biography

Within the broad area of neuroscience my work centres on the mammalian muscle spindle, a mechanoreceptor that occurs in voluntary muscles and responds to length and changing length of the muscles, providing information to the central nervous system for use in controlling muscle activity. Knowledge of its structure and function is important at various levels ranging from the molecular biology of ion channels to the nature of control systems, and in various fields from basic physiology to clinical applications such as nerve repair and rehabilitation. I am currently collaborating with Dr. M. Hulliger of Calgary on the consequences of a pyridoxine-induced large-fibre sensory neuropathy on the sensory innervation of muscle and motor control; and with Dr. Guy Bewick of Aberdeen on the role of synaptic-like vesicles in the sensory endings of mechanoreceptors.

Research interests

  • neurobiology
  • structure and function of sensory receptors in muscle

Publications

Chapter in book

  • Banks, Robert (2018). Muscle Spindles and Tendon Organs ☆. In Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier. 1-10.
  • Banks, R. (2016). Muscle Spindles and Tendon Organs. In Reference Moduke in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier. 1-10.
  • Banks, R. (2014). Skeletal Muscle. In Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Caplan, M. Elsevier.
  • Banks R.W. (2005). The muscle spindle. In Peripheral Neuropathy. PJ Dyck & PK Thomas Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. 131-150.
  • Banks R.W. & Barker, D (2004). The muscle spindle. In Myology. A Engel & C Franzini-Armstrong New York: McGraw-Hill. 3rd. edition: 489-509.
  • Banks, R.W., Bewick, G.S., Reid, B. & Richardson, C. (2002). Evidence for activity-dependent modulation of sensory-terminal excitability in spindles by glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles. In Sensorimotor Control of Movement and Posture. Gandevia,Simon.C, Proske,Uwe & Stuart,Douglas.G New York: Springer. 508: 13-18.
  • Banks, R. W. (1999). Histological staining methods. In Modern techniques in neuroscience research. Windhorst, U. & Johansson, H. Berlin: Springer Verlag. 437-458.
  • Banks, R. W. (1999). Cytological staining methods. In Modern techniques in neuroscience research. Windhorst, U. & Johansson, H. Berlin: Springer Verlag. 1-26.
  • Banks, R. W., Emonet-Denand, F., Stacey, M. J. & Thiesson, D. (1995). The innervation of muscle spindles in an intrinsic muscle of the hind foot: the superficial lumbrical of the cat. In Alpha and Gamma Motor Systems. Taylor, A., Gladden, M. H. & Durbaba, R. New York: Plenum Press. 210-212.
  • Banks, R. W., Decorte, L., Emonet-Denand, F., Gladden, M. H. & Sutherland, F. (1995). The exceptional structure of muscle spindles in superficial lumbrical muscles of the cat hind limb. In Alpha and Gamma Motor Systems. Taylor, A., Gladden, M. H. & Durbaba, R. New York: Plenum Press. 208-209.
  • Banks, R. W., Emonet-Denand, F., Gladden, M. H. & Sutherland, F. I. (1995). Evidence for static gamma innervation of long chain fibres. In Alpha and Gamma Motor Systems. Taylor, A., Gladden, M. H. & Durbaba, R. New York: Plenum Press. 216-218.
  • Banks, R. W., Hulliger, M., Scheepstra, K. A. & Otten, E. (1995). Pacemaker competition and the role of preterminal-branch tree architecture: a combined morphological, physiological and modelling study. In Alpha and Gamma Motor Systems. Taylor, A., Gladden, M. H. & Durbaba, R. New York: Plenum Press. 255-260.
  • Banks, R. W., Gladden, M. H., Sutherland, F. I. & Yoshimura, A. (1995). The sensory and motor innervation of the abductor digiti quinti medius muscle of the cat. In Alpha and Gamma Motor Systems. Taylor, A., Gladden, M. H. & Durbaba, R. New York: Plenum Press. 213-215.
  • Scheepstra, K. A., Otten, E., Hulliger, M. & Banks, R. W. (1995). Modelling of chaotic and regular Ia afferent discharge during fusimotor stimulation. In Alpha and Gamma Motor Systems. Taylor, A., Gladden, M. H. & Durbaba, R. New York: Plenum Press. 325-327.
  • Barker, D. & Banks, R. W. (1994). The muscle spindle. In Myology. Engel, A. & Franzini-Armstrong, C. New York: McGraw Hill. 333-360.
  • Banks, R. W. (1992). Studies on the motor innervation of the cat's muscle spindle. In Muscle afferents and spinal control of movement. Jami, L., Pierrot-Deseilligny, E. & Zytnicki, D. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 31-36.
  • Banks, R. W. & Barker, D. (1991). Neuronal specificites in the reinnervation of muscle spindles. In Plasticity of Motoneuronal Connections. Wernig, A. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 241-249.
  • Banks, R. W. & Stacey, M. J. (1988). Quantitative studies on mammalian muscle spindles and their sensory innervation. In Mechanoreceptors - Development, Structure and Function. Hnik, P., Soukup, T., Vejsada, R. & Zelena, J. New York: Plenum Press. 263-269.
  • Barker, D. & Banks, R. W. (1986). The muscle spindle. In Myology. Engel, A. & Banker, B. Q. New York: McGraw Hill. 309-341.
  • Banks, R. W., Barker, D. & Stacey, M. J. (1985). On the classification of intrafusal motor endings. In The muscle spindle. Boyd, I. A. & Gladden, M. H. London: Macmillan. 69-74.
  • Banks, R. W., Barker, D. & Stacey, M. J. (1981). Structural aspects of fusimotor effects on spindle sensitivity. In Muscle receptors and movement. Taylor, A. & Prochazka, A. London: Macmillan. 5-16.

Conference Paper

  • Watson, S., Zanato, C., Dall'Angello, S., Banks, R. W., Greig, I., Zanda, M. & Bewick, G. S. (2013), Development of fluorescent and biotinylated agonists for a novel glutamate receptor in mechanosensory terminals, Proceedings of the IUPS 37: International Union of Physiological Sciences. Birmingham, UK, PCD168.
  • Banks, R. W., Cahusac, P. M., Watson, S. & Bewick, G. S. (2012), An ex vivo preparation of mouse pinna for recording afferent responses from guard hair follicles of hairy skin, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 27: Physiology 2012. Edinburgh, Physiological Society, PC264.
  • Durbaba, R., Rudd, D., Hulliger, M. & Banks, R. W. (2012), Assessment of myelin thickness and axon circularity in a dorsal root of the mouse, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 27: Physiology 2012. Edinburgh, Physiological Society, PC261.
  • Watson, S. Zanato, C. Dall'Angello, S. Banks, R. W. Greig, I. Zanda, M. & Bewick, G. S. (2012), Pharmacological profile of non-canonical mGluR regulating mechanosensory nerve terminal firing, Proceedings of the Pjysiological Society 27: Physiology 2012. Edinburgh, Pjysiological Society, PC46.
  • Paton, J. F., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010), Modulation of afferent excitability and reflex responses by phospholipase D-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors in the peripheral terminals of rat arterial baroreceptors, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 19: Manchester, Physiological Society, C79.
  • Simon, A., Njå, A., Walaas, I., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010), Synapsin I/II knock out disrupts mechanosensory terminal firing and motor behaviour, 2010 Neuroscience Meeting Planner Program 177.8 : San Diego, CA., Society for Neuroscience, Poster OO13
  • de Nooij, J. C., Simon, A., Doobar, S., Steel, K. P., Banks, R. W., Bewick, G. S. & Jessell, T. M. (2010), Whirlin function in proprioceptive mechanotransduction, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 21: Durham, UK, Physiological Society, PC39.
  • Graca, A. B., Singh, P., Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010), Glutamatergic modulation of synaptic-like vesicle recycling in primary mechanosensory nerve terminals, 2010 Neuroscience Meeting Planner Program 177.3 : San Diego, CA., Society for Neuroscience, Poster OO8.
  • Bewick, G. & Banks, R. (2010), The role of synaptic-like vesicles in control of mechanosensation in peripheral nerve terminals, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 21: Durham, UK, Physiological Society, SA16.
  • Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010), A role for glutamate in regulating mechanosensory sensitivity: Further evidence from rat muscle spindle primary afferent terminals, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 19: Manchester, Physiological Society, C120.
  • Shenton, F. C., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010), In lanceolate endings of rat hair follicles the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel SK3 is found mainly in glial cells, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 21: The Physiological Society Scientific Meeting on Sensory Functions. Durham, UK, Durham, C15.
  • Watson, S., Aryiku, C., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2010), Comparison of gadolinium and FM1-43 as blockers of stretch-evoked firing of rat muscle spindle afferents, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 21: Durham, UK, Physiological Society, PC22.
  • Shenton, F. C., Bewick, G. S. & Banks, R. W. (2009), Immunocytochemical evidence for the presence of ENaC subunits in the sensory endings of rat muscle spindles, 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner: Society for Neuroscience, 2009: Online Society for Neuroscience. Chicago, IL, Program No. 172.9/Y13.
  • Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009), P/Q type calcium and K(Ca) channel blockers increase afferent discharge from mechanosensory terminals, British Neurosci. Assoc. Abstr 20: British Neuroscience Association. 95.
  • Singh, P., Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009), Glutamatergic modulation of vesicle turnover in primary mechanosensory endings, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 17: Cardiff, Physiological Society, C02.
  • Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009), KCa channels regulate stretch-evoked afferent firing from muscle spindles, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 15: Dublin, Physiological Society, 28P.
  • Banks, R. W., Simon, A., Rowe, I. C. & Bewick, G. S (2009), P/Q type Ca2+ channels and KCa channels regulate afferent discharge frequency in spindle mechanosensory terminals, 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner: Society for Neuroscience, 2009: Online Society for Neuroscience. Chicago, IL, Chicago IL, Program No. 172.3/Y7.
  • Shenton, F. C., Wollner, H., Bewick, G. S. & Banks, R. W. (2009), Immunogold labelling for glutamate in lanceolate endings of rat hairs, Proceedings of the Physiological Society 17: Cardiff, Physiological Society, C01.
  • Simon, A., Banks, R. W. & Bewick, G. S. (2009), Stretch-activated rat muscle spindle afferent discharge is inhibited by ENaC and TRP channel modulators, 2009 Neuroscience Meeting Planner: Society for Neuroscience, 2009: Online Society for Neuroscience. Chicago, IL, Chicago IL, Program No. 172.2/Y6.

Conference Proceeding

  • M Hulliger & R W Banks (2004). The relation between motor deficit and proprioceptive loss after large-fibre deafferentation by pyridoxine. 34th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Society for Neuroscience.
  • Banks, R. W., Hulliger, M., Otten, E. & Scheepstra, K. A. (1993). The Ia afferent of the muscle spindle as an example in the study of pacemaker interactions in branched myelinated axons, both model and real. XXXIInd Congress of the IUPS, Glasgow, IUPS.
  • Sabbagh, R., Banks, R. W. & Evans, P. R. (1991). Pectoral asymmetry in the broiler chicken. 23rd Poultry Science Symposium, Edinburgh.
  • Stacey, M. J., Banks, R. W. & Barker, D. (1986). Sensory reinnervation of cat muscle spindles after nerve section. XXXth IUPS Congress, Vancouver, BC. Canada, IUPS.

Journal Article

Newspaper/Magazine Article

  • Bewick, Guy & Banks, Bob (2010). “Sensible to feeling as to sight” some recent progress on mechanosensory transduction in mammals. Physiology News 80: 33-37.

Other (Print)

  • Bewick, G.S. & Banks, R.W. (2016). Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin. Journal of Visualized Experiments (110): e53855.