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This project examines the phenomenon of unwritten constitutionalism from a comparative and inter-disciplinary perspective, focussing on three jurisdictions: Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany.

By comparing each country’s approach to unwritten constitutional norms and principles, the project's researchers will explore common issues faced by all constitutional orders, identify the factors that influence the recognition, definition and enforcement of unwritten constitutional rules, and investigate the role of judicial enforcement of a constitution’s unwritten rules in an era of democratic backsliding.
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Unwritten Constitutional Norms and Principles

Durham Law School

Durham University

Palatine Centre

Stockton Road




Telephone: +44 (0)191 334 2800