|Member of the Centre for Materials Physics||144E||+44 (0) 191 33 43750|
In the 2019/20 academic year I am the Level 2 Laboratory Skills & Electronics module leader. I lecture the Broken Symmetry component of Level 3 Condensed Matter Physics, and the Level 2 Electronics course. I am level 2 Electronics labs course leader, and I supervise Level 2 laboratory skills classes. I supervise two Level 4 research project students working on experimental nanoscale magnetism.
I currently supervise five PhD students: Ariam Mora-Hernandez, Ben Nicholson and Charles Swindells (all fourth year); Luke Turnbull (second year); and Kalel Alsaeed (first year) all of whom work on spintronics and nanoscale magnetism.
I teach a postgraduate course on 'Data Acquisition' as part of the MSc in Scientific Computing and Data Analysis (MISCADA).
I chair the departmental Teaching Laboratories committee, where I also represent level 2 laboratories as module leader. As part of the Teaching Laboratories committee chair's role I also sit on the departmental Education committee, Undergraduate Student-Staff Consultative committee, Health & Safety committee, and Facilities committee. I sit on the Facilities committee also as academic-staff 'Champion' for the department's Mechanical Engineering Services facility, and on the Postgraduate Course Directors committee representing Condensed Matter Physics.
Conventional electronics utilises only the charge of the electron: Spintronics additionally uses the intrinsic 'spin' of the electron as a further state variable to process, convey, and store information. Novel spintronic device architectures promise both enhanced capabilities and reduced power consumption: one outcome of this so-far is the massive increase in magnetic data-storage capacity in recent years, which has enabled high data-capacity consumer technologies such as personal media players, internet email and data storage, and high-definition television-on-demand services. My research centres around the fundamental physical mechanisms underpinning spin-polarized electrical conduction and magnetism in nanostructured spintronic devices. This is achieved using a combination of magnetic and electrical measurements, in conjunction with synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering techniques.
Spin-polarised currents naturally arise in ferromagnetic metals. However, the effects which are useful in harnessing such currents for spintronics - spin-coherence, electrostatic screening, and evanescent decay lengths; electron mean-free-paths; magnetic domain-wall widths etc. - typically involve lengthscales on the nanometer scale. The passage of spin-polarised currents through a device is intrinsically linked to the detailed electronic structure of materials, making it possible to probe fundamental quantum-mechanical effects in magnetic nanostructures from something as simple as electrical resistance measurements. In order to study and exploit spin-polarised currents it is often necessary to fabricate thin-film or multilayered magnetic devices: magnetic thin-films and nanostructures present a wealth of novel and interesting physics in themselves. One aspect in which I am interested is hybrid structures combining metallic magnetic materials with semiconductors: incorporating the spin degree of freedom in inorganic semiconductor (Si, GaAs etc.) devices allows extension of traditional functionality, whilst organic semiconductors provide the scope for spintronic functionality to be added in future low-cost printable and flexible electronics.
Thin-film and Interface magnetism
Nanomaterials bridge the gap between individual atoms and bulk material: Thin-films, consisting sometimes of only a few atomic monolayers, can exhibit very different electrical and magnetic properties than their bulk counterparts due to symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces reducing the dimensionality of the system, whereas in nanoclusters long-range translational symmetry is entirely removed. The competition surface/interface and volume effects means that varying film thicknesses or cluster sizes over only a very small, even sub-nanometer, range can result in drastic modification to how materials behave. This provides an ideal method to engineer suitable magnetic properties for a given device application. Much of my research in this are centred on the magnetic anisotropy found in magnetic metal-inorganic semiconductor hybrid contacts: forming an atomically abrupt interface between nanoscale layers of different classes of material often produces novel, interesting, and technologically useful effects.
Deposition and fabrication of thin-film devices
Functionality of many of the layered structures relevant for present and future spintronic devices relies heavily on the exact structure of the device materials on an atomic scale: crystal structure and orientation; abrupt, smooth layer interfaces and pattern definition etc., in addition to avoiding damage to the underlying material or structure during fabrication. In addition to a degree of control required in order to fabricate modern devices, the material growth techniques employed must also be suitable for the high throughput, rapid turnaround manufacturing processes required for large-scale industrial application.
Synchrotron x-ray & neutron scattering
Large scale facilities provide the ability to investigate both structure and magnetism in nanomaterials and devices. Synchrotron techniques allow element-specific structural and magnetic characterisation, in addition to nanoscale imaging. Neutron reflectivity methods are used to determine vector magnetization depth-profiles of buried structures and interfaces. National and international facilities are used in my research, including the ISIS neutron source and Diamond Light Source (UK), and the US National Synchrotron Light Source. Using these techniques provides many opportunities to understand the underlying physics behind the many magnetic interactions which can occur at surfaces and interfaces: with this understanding we are then able to tailor the material properties to provide enhanced performance and functionality in future devices (Image courtesy of NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory).
- 2019: Invited Seminar: Landau seminar series, Loughborough University, UK
- 2019: Invited speaker: UK Neutron & Muon Science and User Meeting 2019, Warwick Univerity, UK
- 2018: Technical program committee: IEEE International conference on Microwave Magnetics (ICMM) 2018
- 2018: Invited speaker: STFC ISIS Large Scale Structures meeting 2018
- 2017: Programme committee: Magnetism 2017, IOP national magnetism meeting, and session chair for 'Thin-films and nanomagnets' session, University of York, UK
- 2017: Invited lecture: OP postgraduate magnetism techniques workshop 2017, Univerity of York, UK
- 2017: Invited speaker: Royal Society of Chemistry Faraday Joint Interest Group Conference, Warwick University, UK
- 2017: Invited seminar: University of Central Lancashire, UK
- 2016: Plenary speaker: IOP Neutrons scattering group `Grand challenges' meeting 2016, London
- 2016: Invited lecture: IOP postgraduate magnetism techniques workshop 2016, Univerity of York, UK
- 2016: Invited speaker: Joint European Magnetics Symposium (JEMS) 2016, Glasgow, UK
- 2016: Invited speaker: WALL Marie Curie ITN School on Domain Wall Motion and Spintronics, Spetses, Greece.
- 2016: Invited speaker: XMaS users meeting 2016, University of Warwick, UK
- 2015: Organiser: Durham UK-India workshop on magnetisation processes 2015
- 2015: Invited speaker: IOP Ireland and Seagate Technology Conference: Thin Film Fabrication and Characterisation Techniques, and Their Application in Recording Head Wafer Manufacturing
- 2015: Invited lecture: IOP postgraduate magnetism techniques workshop 2015, Univerity of York, UK
- 2015: Programme committee: Magnetism 2015, IOP national magnetism meeting, and session chair for Session 8: Skyrmions and topological effects.
- 2015: ISIS Facilities Access Panel: Member of FAP3 - Large-scale structures at STFC ISIS neutron facility
- 2015: Editorial board member: Scientific Reports
- 2015: Invited Seminar: University of Cardiff
- 2015: Invited speaker: University of Newcastle Physics seminar series - first external invited speaker for new seminar series.
- 2015: ISIS user committee: User representative for Large Scale Structures at STFC ISIS neutron facility
- 2014: Invited lecture: IOP postgraduate magnetism techniques workshop 2014, Univerity of York, UK
- 2014: Programme committee: Magnetism 2014, inaugural IOP national magnetism meeting.
- 2014: Invited speaker: Science faculty workshop on 'Technology Enhanced Learning'
- 2014: Session co-chair: Session CV - Nanowires and Assembled Nanoparticles I, at 59th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
- 2013: Invited lecture: IOP postgraduate magnetism techniques workshop 2013, Univerity of York, UK
- 2013: Invited speaker: Joint Korea-UK spintronics workshop, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.
- 2013: Invited seminar: S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata, India
- 2012: Invited seminar: Department of Physics, University of Leeds
- 2012: University research infrastructure funding: funding awarded by the university to begin setting up a laboratory for thin-film deposition.
- 2012: Institute of Physics: Honorary Treasurer of IOP Magnetism group
- 2012: Invited speaker: Joint Korea-UK spintronics workshop, Seoul, South Korea.
- 2012: EPSRC Manufacturing the Future theme: Selected as one of the first members of the new Early Career Forum for Manufacturing Research, 2012-2014.
- 2011: Institute of Physics: Elected member of Magnetism subject group committee.
- 2011: Invited review article: Topical review on 'Interface magnetism in ferromagnet-compound semiconductor hybrid structures' for the inaugural issue of the spintronics and nanomagnetism journal 'Spin'.
- Tokaç, M., Kazan, S., Özkal, B., Al-jawfi, N., Rameev, B., Nicholson, B., & Hindmarch, A. T. (2023). Two Magnon Scattering Contribution to the Ferromagnetic Resonance Linewidth of Pt(Ir)/CoFeTaB/Ir(Pt) Thin Films. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 54(10), 1053-1064. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00723-023-01601-3
- Burn, D., Fan, R., Inyang, O., Tokaç, M., Bouchenoire, L., Hindmarch, A., & Steadman, P. (2022). Spin orbit torque driven magnetization reversal in CoFeTaB/Pt probed by resonant x-ray reflectivity. Physical Review B, 106(9), Article 094429. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.106.094429
- Seemann, K., Gomonay, O., Mokrousov, Y., Hörner, A., Valencia, S., Klamser, P., …Fischer, P. (2022). Magnetoelastic resonance as a probe for exchange springs at antiferromagnet-ferromagnet interfaces. Physical Review B, 105(14), Article 144432. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.105.144432
- Swindells, C., Hindmarch, A., Gallant, A., & Atkinson, D. (2020). Spin current propagation through ultra-thin insulating layers in multilayered ferromagnetic systems. Applied Physics Letters, 116(4), Article 042403. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5119787
- Inyang, O., Bouchenoire, L., Nicholson, B., Tokaç, M., Rowan-Robinson, R., Kinane, C., & Hindmarch, A. (2019). Threshold interface magnetization required to induce magnetic proximity effect. Physical Review B, 100(17), Article 174418. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.100.174418
- Swindells, C., Hindmarch, A., Gallant, A., & Atkinson, D. (2019). Spin transport across the interface in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic systems. Physical Review B, 99(6), Article 064406. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.99.064406
- Rowan-Robinson, R., Hindmarch, A., & Atkinson, D. (2018). Efficient current-induced magnetization reversal by spin-orbit torque in Pt/Co/Pt. Journal of Applied Physics, 124(18), Article 183901. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5046503
- Belmeguenai, M., Roussigné, Y., Bouloussa, H., Chérif, S., Stashkevich, A., Nasui, M., …Bouchenoire, L. (2018). Thickness Dependence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in Co2FeAl Ultrathin Films: Effects of Annealing Temperature and Heavy-Metal Material. Physical Review Applied, 9(4), Article 044044. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevapplied.9.044044
- Rowan-Robinson, R., Stashkevich, A., Roussigne, Y., Belmeguenai, M., Cherif, S., Thiaville, A., …Atkinson, D. (2017). The interfacial nature of proximity-induced magnetism and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the Pt/Co interface. Scientific Reports, 7(1), Article 16835. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17137-z
- Tokac, M., Kinane, C., Atkinson, D., & Hindmarch, A. (2017). Temperature Dependence of Magnetically Dead Layers in Ferromagnetic Thin-Films. AIP Advances, 7(11), Article 115022. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4997366
- Azzawi, S., Hindmarch, A., & Atkinson, D. (2017). Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 50(47), Article 473001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa8dad
- Brandão, J., Azzawi, S., Hindmarch, A., & Atkinson, D. (2017). Understanding the role of damping and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on dynamic domain wall behaviour in platinum-ferromagnet nanowires. Scientific Reports, 7(1), Article 4569. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04088-8
- Azzawi, S., Ganguly, A., Tokaç, M., Rowan-Robinson, R., Sinha, J., Hindmarch, A., …Atkinson, D. (2016). Evolution of damping in ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic thin film bilayers as a function of nonmagnetic layer thickness. Physical Review B, 93(5), Article 054402. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.93.054402
- Tokaç, M., Wang, M., Jaiswal, S., Rushforth, A., Gallagher, B., Atkinson, D., & Hindmarch, A. (2015). Interfacial Contribution to Thickness Dependent in-plane Anisotropic Magnetoresistance. AIP Advances, 5(12), Article 127108. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4937556
- Ganguly, A., Azzawi, S., Saha, S., King, J., Rowan-Robinson, R., Hindmarch, A., …Barman, A. (2015). Tunable Magnetization Dynamics in Interfacially Modified Ni81Fe19/Pt Bilayer Thin Film Microstructures. Scientific Reports, 5, Article 17596. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep17596
- Tokaç, M., Bunyaev, S., Kakazei, G., Schmool, D., Atkinson, D., & Hindmarch, A. (2015). Interfacial Structure Dependent Spin Mixing Conductance in Cobalt Thin Films. Physical Review Letters, 115(5), Article 056601. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.115.056601
- Ganguly, A., Rowan-Robinson, R., Haldar, A., Jaiswal, S., Sinha, J., Hindmarch, A., …Barman, A. (2014). Time-domain detection of current controlled magnetization damping in Pt/Ni81Fe19 bilayer and determination of Pt spin Hall angle. Applied Physics Letters, 105(11), Article 112409. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4896277
- Rowan-Robinson, R., Hindmarch, A., & Atkinson, D. (2014). Enhanced electron-magnon scattering in ferromagnetic thin films and the breakdown of the Mott two-current model. Physical review B, 90(10), https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.90.104401
- King, J., Ganguly, A., Burn, D., Pal, S., Sallabank, E., Hase, T., …Atkinson, D. (2014). Local control of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic/non-magnetic bilayers by interfacial intermixing induced by focused ion-beam irradiation. Applied Physics Letters, 104(24), Article 242410. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4883860
- Skinner, T., Wang, M., Hindmarch, A., Rushforth, A., Irvine, A., Heiss, D., …Ferguson, A. (2014). Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers. Applied Physics Letters, 104(6), Article 062401. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4864399
- Parkes, D., Shelford, L., Wadley, P., Holý, V., Wang, M., Hindmarch, A., …Rushforth, A. (2013). Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics. Scientific Reports, 3, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02220
- Harnchana, V., Hindmarch, A., Sarahan, M., Marrows, C., Brown., A., & Brydson, R. (2013). Evidence for boron diffusion into sub-stoichiometric MgO (001) barriers in CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions. Journal of Applied Physics, 113(16), Article 163502. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4802692
- Wang, M., Rushforth, A., Hindmarch, A., Campion, R., Edmonds, K., Staddon, C., …Gallagher, B. (2013). Magnetic and structural properties of (Ga,Mn)As/(Al,Ga,Mn)As bilayer films. Applied Physics Letters, 102(11), Article 112404. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4795444
- Skinner, T., Kurebayashi, H., Fang, D., Heiss, D., Irvine, A., Hindmarch, A., …Ferguson, A. (2013). Enhanced inverse spin-Hall effect in ultrathin ferromagnetic/normal metal bilayers. Applied Physics Letters, 102(7), Article 072401. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4792693
- Ciudad, D., Wen, Z., Hindmarch, A., Negusse, E., Arena, D., Han, X., & Marrows, C. (2012). Competition between cotunneling, Kondo effect, and direct tunneling in discontinuous high-anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions. Physical review B, 85, https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.85.214408
- Hindmarch, A., Parkes, D., & Rushforth, A. (2012). Fabrication of metallic magnetic nanostructures by argon ion milling using a reversed polarity planar magnetron ion source. Vacuum, 86(10), 1600-1604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2012.02.019
- Parkes, D., Cavill, S., Hindmarch, A., Wadley, P., McGee, F., Staddon, C., …Rushforth, A. (2012). Non-volatile voltage control of magnetization and magnetic domain walls in magnetostrictive epitaxial thin films. Applied Physics Letters, 101(7), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4745789
- Hindmarch, A., Rushforth, A., Campion, R., Marrows, C., & Gallagher, B. (2011). Origin of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB amorphous ferromagnetic thin -films. Physical review B, 83(21), https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.83.212404
- Hindmarch, A., Harnchana, V., Walton, A., Brown, A., Brydson, R., & Marrows, C. (2011). Zirconium as a boron sink in crystalline CoFeB:MgO:CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. Applied Physics Express, 4(1), https://doi.org/10.1143/apex.4.013002
- Hindmarch, A. (2011). Interface magnetism in ferromagnetic metal-compound semiconductor hybrid structures. SPIN, 1(1), 45-69. https://doi.org/10.1142/s2010324711000069
- Dempsey, K., Hindmarch, A., Arena, D., & Marrows, C. (2010). Tuning the coercive field of Ni and CuNi thin films with the embedding of Co nanoparticles: An element-specific study. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 322(23), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2010.08.019
- Dempsey, K., Hindmarch, A., Wei, H., Qin, Q., Wen, Z., Wang, W., …Marrows, C. (2010). Cotunneling enhancement of magnetoresistance in double magnetic tunnel junctions with embedded superparamagnetic NiFe nanoparticles. Physical Review B, 82(21),
- Hindmarch, A., Arena, D., Dempsey, K., Henini, M., & Marrows, C. (2010). Influence of deposition field on the magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Co70Fe30 films on GaAs(001). Physical review B, 81(10), Article 100407. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.81.100407
- Hindmarch, A., Dempsey, K., Ciudad, D., Negusse, E., Arena, D., & Marrows, C. (2010). Fe diffusion, oxidation, and reduction at the CoFeB:MgO interface studied by soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism. Applied Physics Letters, 96(9), Article 092501. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3332576
- Seemann, K., Makrousov, Y., Aziz, A., Miguel, J., Kronast, F., Kuch, W., …Marrows, C. (2010). Spin-Orbit Strength Driven Crossover between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Mechanisms of the Anomalous Hall Effect in the Epitaxial L10-Ordered Ferromagnets FePd and FePt. Physical Review Letters, 104(7), Article 076402. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.104.076402
- Sidorenko, A., Pernechele, C., Lupo, P., Ghidini, M., Solzi, M., De Renzi, R., …Hindmarch, A. (2010). Interface effects on an ultrathin Co film in multilayers based on the organic semiconductor Alq3. Applied Physics Letters, 97(17), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3505495
- Hindmarch, A., Harnchana, V., Ciudad, D., Negusse, E., Arena, D., Brown, A., …Marrows, C. (2010). Magnetostructural influences of thin Mg insert layers in crystalline CoFe(B):MgO:CoFe(B) magnetic tunnel junctions. Applied Physics Letters, 97(25), Article 252502. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3527939
- Dempsey, K., Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., Wei, H., Qin, Q., Wen, Z., & Han, X. (2009). Spin-dependent tunneling through NiFe nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Physics, 105(7), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3072721
- Hindmarch, A., Suszka, A., MacKenzie, M., Chapman, J., Henini, M., Taylor, D., …Marrows, C. (2009). Structural and magnetic properties of magnetron sputtered Co70Fe30 films on GaAs(110). Journal of Applied Physics, 105(7), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3093875
- Hindmarch, A., Dempsey, K., Morgan, J., Hickey, B., Arena, D., & Marrows, C. (2008). Room temperature magnetic stabilization of buried cobalt nanoclusters within a ferromagnetic matrix studied by soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Applied Physics Letters, 93(17), Article 172511. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3012368
- Hindmarch, A., Kinane, C., MacKenzie, M., Chapman, J., Henini, M., Taylor, D., …Marrows, C. (2008). Interface induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in amorphous CoFeB films on AlGaAs(001). Physical Review Letters, 100(11), Article 117201. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.100.117201
- Harnchana, V., Brown, A., Brydson, R., Harrington, J., Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., & Hickey, B. (2008). TEM Characterization of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction - art. no. 012058. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 126, 12058-12058. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/126/1/012058
- Hindmarch, A., Kinane, C., Marrows, C., Hickey, B., Henini, M., Taylor, D., …Dvorak, J. (2007). In-plane magnetic anisotropies of sputtered Co0.7Fe0.3 films on AlGaAs(001) spin light emitting diode heterostructures. Journal of Applied Physics, 101(9), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2709494
- Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., & Hickey, B. (2007). Additional sub-gap conductance enhancement in nanoscale Andreev point contact junctions. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 19(13), https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/19/13/136211
- Anderson, G., Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., & Hickey, B. (2006). In situ transport measurements of plasma-oxidized MgO magnetic tunnel junctions during the annealing process. Journal of Applied Physics, 99(8), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2166601
- Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., & Hickey, B. (2006). Temperature-driven band motion prior to the phase transition of an itinerant ferromagnet. Journal of Applied Physics, 99(8), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2151161
- Hindmarch, A., Anderson, G., Marrows, C., & Hickey, B. (2006). In situ transport in alumina-based magnetic tunnel junctions during high-vacuum annealing. Journal of Applied Physics, 99(8), https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2165110
- Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., & Hickey, B. (2005). Tunneling spin polarization in magnetic tunnel junctions near the Curie temperature. Physical review B, 72(10), https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.72.100401
- Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., & Hickey, B. (2005). Tunneling magnetoresistance spectroscopy: Temperature dependent spin-polarized band structure in Cu38Ni62. Physical review B, 72(6), https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.72.060406
- Hindmarch, A., & Hickey, B. (2003). Direct experimental evidence for the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction in rare-earth metals. Physical Review Letters, 91(11), https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.91.116601
- Barman, A., Kruglyak, V., Hicken, R., Marrows, C., Ali, M., Hindmarch, A., & Hickey, B. (2002). Characterization of spin valves fabricated on opaque substrates by optical ferromagnetic resonance. Applied Physics Letters, 81(8), 1468-1470. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1501159
- Steadman, P., Ali, M., Hindmarch, A., Marrows, C., Hickey, B., Langridge, S., …Foster, S. (2002). Exchange bias in spin-engineered double superlattices. Physical Review Letters, 89(7), https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.89.077201
- Marrows, C., Langridge, S., Ali, M., Hindmarch, A., Dekadjevi, D., Foster, S., & Hickey, B. (2002). Mapping domain disorder in exchange-biased magnetic multilayers. Physical Review B (Condensed Matter), 66(2), https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.66.024437