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Prof David Flower

Emeritus Professor

BSc, PhD, FRAS, FRSA


Affiliations
AffiliationRoom numberTelephone
Emeritus Professor in the Department of Physics306a+44 (0) 191 33 43625
Member of Quantum Light and Matter  

Biography

Research Interests

David's research interests include various aspects of the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium, particularly the processes occurring in regions of star formation. The impact of protostellar jets on the surrounding molecular material leads to the production of shock waves, which heat and compress and the gas. This gas cools by radiating in atomic and molecular spectral lines that are observed at mm and infra-red wavelengths, both from the ground and by means of satellites. David also calculates some of the basic molecular data that are required to interpret these observations, specifically rate coefficients for the excitation of interstellar atoms and molecules by the most abundant interstellar species (atomic and molecular hydrogen and helium).

Research interests

  • atomic theory
  • interstellar physics

Research groups

Related Links

Publications

Authored book

Book review

  • Flower, D. (1984). Book-Review - Planetary Nebulae - I.A.U. SYMP.103 - London - 1982AUG. Mercury 13: 93-.

Conference Paper

  • Flower, D.R. (2000), H2 in Space, 1: 24th IAU General Assembly, Joint Discussion 1. Manchester, England.

Journal Article

  • Faure, A, Hily-Blant, P, Rist, C, Pineau des Forêts, G, Matthews, A & Flower, D R (2019). The ortho-to-para ratio of water in interstellar clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 487(3): 3392-3403.
  • Hily-Blant, P., Faure, A., Rist, C., Pineau des Forêts, G. & Flower, D. R. (2018). Modelling the molecular composition and nuclear-spin chemistryof collapsing pre-stellar sources★. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 477(4): 4454-4472.
  • Akyilmaz, M, Flower, DR, Hily-Blant, P, des Forets, GP & Walmsley, CM (2007). The depletion of NO in pre-protostellar cores. Astronomy & Astrophysics 462(1): 221-U15.
  • Flower, DR, des Forets, GP & Walmsley, CM (2006). The abundances of nitrogen-containing molecules during pre-protostellar collapse. Astronomy & Astrophysics 456(1): 215-U41.
  • Giannini, T, McCoey, C, Nisini, B, Cabrit, S, Garatti, ACO, Calzoletti, L & Flower, DR (2006). Molecular line emission in HH54: a coherent view from near to far infrared. Astronomy & Astrophysics 459(3): 821-835.
  • Flower, DR, des Forets, GPD & Walmsley, CM (2006). The importance of the ortho: para H-2 ratio for the deuteration of molecules during pre-protostellar collapse. Astronomy & Astrophysics 449(2): 621-629.
  • Wrathmall, SA & Flower, DR (2006). A quantum-mechanical study of rotational transitions in H-2 induced by H. Journal Of Physics B-atomic Molecular And Optical Physics 39(11): L249-L253.
  • Maret, S., Ceccarelli, C., Tielens, A. G. G. M., Caux, E., & Lefloch, B., Faure, A., Castets, A. and Flower, D. R. (2005). Methanol emission from low mass protostars. ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints arXiv:astro-ph/0507172-.
  • Flower, D. R., Pineau Des Forêts, G. and Walmsley, C. M. (2005). Freeze-out and coagulation in pre-protostellar collapse. Astronomy and Astrophysics 436: 933-943.
  • Giannini, T., McCoey, C., Caratti o Garatti, A., Nisini, & B., Lorenzetti, D. and Flower, D. (2004). Infrared knots along protostellar jets (Giannini+, 2004). VizieR Online Data Catalog 341: 90999-.
  • Flower, D. R., Pineau des Forêts, G. & Walmsley, C. M. (2004). Multiply-deuterated species in prestellar cores. Astronomy & Astrophysics 427(3): 887-893.
  • Leurini, S., Schilke, P., Menten, K. M., Flower, D. R., & Pottage, J. T. and Xu, L.-H. (2004). Methanol as a diagnostic tool of interstellar clouds. I. Model calculations and application to molecular clouds. Astronomy and Astrophysics 422: 573-585.
  • Pottage, J. T., Flower, D. R. and Davis, Stephen L. (2004). The torsional excitation of methanol by helium. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 37: 165-177.
  • Flower, D.R. & Middleton, M.J. (2004). Electron attachment to interstellar grains. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 352: 837-840.
  • Walmsley, C. M., Flower, D. R. and Pineau des Forêts, G. (2004). Complete depletion in prestellar cores. Astronomy and Astrophysics 418: 1035-1043.
  • Cabrit, S., Flower, D. R., Des Forêts, G. Pineau, Le & Bourlot, J. and Ceccarelli, C. (2004). H2 Diagnostics of Magnetic Molecular Shocks in Bipolar Outflows. Astrophysics and Space Science 292: 501-508.
  • Giannini, T., McCoey, C., Caratti o Garatti, A., Nisini, & B., Lorenzetti, D. and Flower, D. R. (2004). On the excitation of the infrared knots along protostellar jets. Astronomy and Astrophysics 419: 999-1014.
  • Pottage, J. T. Flower, D. R. & Davis, S. L. (2004). The rotational excitation of methanol by para-hydrogen. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 352(1): 39-43.
  • McCoey, C., Giannini, T., Flower, D. R. and Caratti o & Garatti, A. (2004). On the excitation of the infrared knots in the HH99 outflow. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 353: 813-824.
  • Flower, D. R. & Pineau des Forêts, G. (2003). The influence of grains on the propagation and structure of C-type shock waves in interstellar molecular clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 343(2): 390-400.
  • Flower, D. R., Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des Forêts, G. and & Cabrit, S. (2003). Diagnosing the conditions in molecular outflow sources: New developments in shock wave models with non-equilibrium chemistry. Astrophysics and Space Science 287: 183-186.
  • Flower, D. R., Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des Forêts, G. and & Cabrit, S. (2003). The contributions of J-type shocks to the H2 emission from molecular outflow sources. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 341: 70-80.
  • Flower, D.R. & Forêts, G. Pineau des (2003). The role of ambipolar diffusion in the fragmentation of condensations of the primordial gas. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 341: 1272-1278.
  • Flower, D.R. (2002). H2 in space. Highlights in Astronomy 12: 65-66.
  • Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des Forêts, G. Flower, D. R. & Cabrit, S. (2002). New determinations of the critical velocities of C-type shock waves in dense molecular clouds: application to the outflow source in Orion. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 332(4): 985-993.
  • Pottage, J. T., Flower, D. R. and Davis, Stephen L. (2002). The rotational excitation by helium of methanol in its ground and first excited torsional states. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 35: 2541-2553.
  • Flower, D.R. (2002). The fragmentation of condensations of the primordial gas. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 333: 763-767.
  • Flower, D.R. (2001). The rotational excitation of CO by H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 34: 2731-2738.
  • Pineau des Forêts, G., Flower, D. R., Aguillon, F., Sidis, & V. and Sizun, M. (2001). Collisional excitation of H2 by grains in C-type shocks. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 323: L7-L11.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forêts & G. (2001). The thermal balance of the first structures in the primordial gas. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 323: 672-676.
  • Pottage, J. T., Flower, D. R. and Davis, Stephen L. (2001). The rotational excitation of methanol by helium at low temperatures. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 34: 3313-3330.
  • Flower, D.R. (2001). The rotational excitation of OCS by He at low temperatures. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 328: 147-149.
  • Flower, D.R. (2000). HD in the primordial gas. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 318: 875-878.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forêts & G. (2000). The ortho:para H2 ratio in the primordial gas. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 316: 901-905.
  • Wilgenbus, D., Cabrit, S., Pineau des Forets, G. and & Flower, D. (2000). Ortho:para-H2 ratio in C and J shocks (Wilgenbus+, 2000). VizieR Online Data Catalog 335: 61010-.
  • Flower, D.R. (2000). Quantal coupled channels calculations of the rates of self-relaxation of ortho- and para-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 33: 5243-5249.
  • Flower, D.R. (2000). LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Vibrational relaxation of H2 in collisions with rotationally excited H2 molecules. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 33: L193-L195.
  • Flower, D.R. (2000). Momentum transfer between ions and neutrals in molecular gas. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 313: L19-L21.
  • May, P. W., Pineau des Forêts, G., Flower, D. R., Field, & D., Allan, N. L. and Purton, J. A. (2000). Sputtering of grains in C-type shocks. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 318: 809-816.
  • Flower, D. R., Bourhis, G. and Launay, J.-M. (2000). Molcol: A program for solving atomic and molecular collision problems. Computer Physics Communications 131: 187-201.
  • Flower, D. R., Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des Forêts, G. and & Roueff, E. (2000). The cooling of astrophysical media by HD. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 314: 753-758.
  • Wilgenbus, D., Cabrit, S., Pineau des Forêts, G. and & Flower, D. R. (2000). The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks. Astronomy and Astrophysics 356: 1010-1022.
  • Flower, D.R. (2000). Erratum: Momentum transfer between ions and neutrals in molecular gas. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 315: 431-431.
  • Roueff, E. & Flower, D.R. (1999). A quantum mechanical study of the rotational excitation of HD by H. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 305: 353-356.
  • Flower, D.R. & Roueff, E. (1999). Rovibrational relaxation in collisions between H2 molecules: II. Influence of the rotational state of the perturber. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 32: 3399-3407.
  • Flower, D.R. & Roueff, E. (1999). Rovibrational excitation of HD in collisions with atomic and molecular hydrogen. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 309: 833-835.
  • Walmsley, C. M., Pineau des Forêts, G. and Flower, D. R. (1999). Silicon chemistry in PDRs. Astronomy and Astrophysics 342: 542-550.
  • Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des Forêts, G. and Flower, D. R. (1999). The cooling of astrophysical media by H_2. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 305: 802-810.
  • Flower, D.R. (1999). Rotational excitation of HCO^+ by H_2. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 305: 651-653.
  • Flower, D.R. & Roueff, E. (1999). LETTER TO THE EDITOR: The influence of vibration on rotational cross sections in <IMG ALIGN="BOTTOM" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-Images/0953- 4075/32/7/004/img1.gif"/> and HD. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 32: L171-L175.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forêts & G. (1999). H_2 emission from shocks in molecular outflows: the significance of departures from a stationary state. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 308: 271-280.
  • Flower, D.R. (1999). A quantum mechanical study of the rotational excitation of HD by H2. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 32(7): 1755-1767.
  • Davies, P.G. & Flower, D.R. (1998). Electron capture from metastable He atoms by <IMG ALIGN="MIDDLE" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-Images/0953- 4075/31/16/016/img1.gif"/> ions. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 31: 3639-3646.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forets & G. (1998). C-type shocks in the interstellar medium: profiles of CH^+ and CH absorption lines. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 297: 1182-1188.
  • Chieze, J.-P., Pineau des Forets, G. and Flower, D. R. (1998). Temporal evolution of MHD shocks in the interstellar medium. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 295: 672-.
  • Joulain, K., Falgarone, E., Des Forets, G. Pineau and & Flower, D. (1998). Non-equilibrium chemistry in the dissipative structures of interstellar turbulence. Astronomy and Astrophysics 340: 241-256.
  • Flower, D.R. & Roueff, E. (1998). Rovibrational relaxation in collisions between <IMG ALIGN="MIDDLE" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-Images/0953- 4075/31/13/012/img1.gif"/> molecules: I. Transitions induced by ground state para-<IMG ALIGN="MIDDLE" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-I. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 31: 2935-2947.
  • Flower, D.R. (1998). The rotational excitation of H_2 by H_2. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 297: 334-336.
  • Flower, D.R. & Roueff, E. (1998). LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Vibrational relaxation in H - <IMG ALIGN="BOTTOM" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-Images/0953- 4075/31/23/002/img1.gif"/> collisions. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 31: L955-L958.
  • Flower, D. R., Roueff, E. and Zeippen, C. J. (1998). Rovibrational excitation of <IMG ALIGN="MIDDLE" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-Images/0953- 4075/31/5/017/img1.gif"/> molecules by He atoms. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 31: 1105-1113.
  • Flower, D.R. (1997). A quantal study of the rovibrational excitation of <IMG ALIGN="BOTTOM" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-Images/0953- 4075/30/13/009/img1.gif"/> by H. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 30: 3009-3017.
  • Flower, D.R. (1997). Rotational excitation of hydrogen molecules by hydrogen atoms. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 288: 627-630.
  • Field, D., May, P. W., Pineau des Forets, G. and Flower, & D. R. (1997). Sputtering of the refractory cores of interstellar grains. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 285: 839-846.
  • Schilke, P., Walmsley, C. M., Pineau des Forets, G. and & Flower, D. R. (1997). SiO production in interstellar shocks. Astronomy and Astrophysics 321: 293-304.
  • Flower, D.R. & Wroe, R.A. (1996). LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Rotational excitation of <IMG ALIGN="BOTTOM" SRC="http://www.iop.org/EJ3-Images/0953- 4075/29/23/007/img1.gif"/> by H at low energies. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 29: L851-L854.
  • Flower, D. R., Pineau des Forets, G., Field, D. and May, & P. W. (1996). The structure of MHD shocks in molecular outflows: grain sputtering and SiO formation. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 280: 447-457.
  • Schilke, P., Walmsley, C. M., Pineau des Forets, G. and & Flower, D. R. (1996). SiO production in interstellar shocks (Schilke+ 1997). VizieR Online Data Catalog 332: 10293-.
  • Jeffery, C.S. & Flower, D.R. (1996). Models for the interpretation of stellar and interstellar spectra. Observatory -Didcot- 116: 286-288.
  • Roueff, E., Forets, G. Pineau Des and Flower, D. R. (1995). The Importance of Chemical Data for the Study of Interstellar Shocks. Astrophysics and Space Science 233: 125-137.
  • Herrero, B., Cooper, I. L., Dickinson, A. S. and Flower, & D. R. (1995). Charge transfer in slow N2++H collisions. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 28: 711-724.
  • Flower, D. R., Pineau des Forets, G. and Walmsley, C. M. (1995). Hot shocked ammonia towards SGR B2. Astronomy and Astrophysics 294: 815-824.
  • Slim, H. A., Bransden, B. H. and Flower, D. R. (1995). Formation of autoionizing states of helium in collisions with protons. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 28: 1623-1642.
  • Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des Forets, G., Roueff, E. and & Flower, D. R. (1995). On the uniqueness of the solutions to the chemical rate equations in interstellar clouds: the gas-dust interface. Astronomy and Astrophysics 302: 870-.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forets & G. (1995). Non-thermal sputtering of interstellar grains in magnetohydrodynamic shocks. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 275: 1049-1056.
  • Herrero, B., Cooper, I. L., Dickinson, A. S. and Flower, & D. R. (1995). Low-energy electron capture from H and D by C3+ ions. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 28: 4607-4618.
  • Flower, D. R., Le Bourlot, J., Pineau Des Forets, G. and & Roueff, E. (1994). Atomic carbon in interstellar clouds. Astronomy and Astrophysics 282: 225-232.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forets & G. (1994). Grain / Mantle Erosion in Magnetohydrodynamic Shocks. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 268: 724-.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Roueff, E., Schilke, P. and & Flower, D. R. (1993). Sulphur-bearing molecules as tracers of shocks in interstellar clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 262: 915-928.
  • Le Bourlot, J., Pineau Des Forets, G., Roueff, E. and & Flower, D. R. (1993). Infrared and submillimetric emission lines from the envelopes of dark clouds. Astronomy and Astrophysics 267: 233-254.
  • Heck, E. L., Flower, D. R., Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des & Forets, G. and Roueff, E. (1993). Models of the Omicron Per diffuse interstellar cloud. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 262: 795-799.
  • Slim, H. A., Bransden, B. H. and Flower, D. R. (1993). Excitation of autoionizing states of helium in collisions with protons: validity of the first Born approximation. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 26: L159-L163.
  • Schilke, P., Walmsley, C. M., Pineau Des Forets, G., & Roueff, E., Flower, D. R. and Guilloteau, S. (1992). A study of HCN, HNC and their isotopomers in OMC-1. I - Abundances and chemistry. Astronomy and Astrophysics 256: 595-612.
  • Heck, E. L., Flower, D. R., Le Bourlot, J., Pineau des & Forets, G. and Roueff, E. (1992). On the evolution of diffuse interstellar clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 258: 377-383.
  • Jaquet, R., Staemmler, V., Smith, M. D. and Flower, D. R. (1992). Excitation of the fine-structure transitions of O(^3P_j) in collisions with ortho- and para-H_2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 25: 285-297.
  • Abgrall, H., Le Bourlot, J., Pineau Des Forets, G., & Roueff, E., Flower, D. R. and Heck, L. (1992). Photodissociation of H2 and the H/H2 transition in interstellar clouds. Astronomy and Astrophysics 253: 525-536.
  • Jackson, D., Slim, H. A., Bransden, B. H. and Flower, D. & R. (1992). Excitation and charge transfer in He+-H collisions. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 25: L127-L130.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Roueff, E. and Flower, D. R. (1992). The two chemical phases of dark interstellar clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 258: 45P-47P.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Flower, D. R. and Chieze, J.-P. (1992). Dynamical mixing of interstellar clouds - The effects of adsorption on to grains. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 256: 247-251.
  • Dubernet, Marie-Lise, Flower, David and Hutson, Jeremy M. (1991). The dynamics of open-shell Van der Waals complexes. Journal of Chemical Physics 94: 7602-7618.
  • Slim, H. A., Heck, E. L., Bransden, B. H. & Flower, D. R. (1991). Ionization and charge transfer in proton-helium collisions. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 24(17): L421-L424.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Flower, D. R. and McCarroll, R. (1991). The para-H2:ortho-H2 ratio and the deuteration of interstellar molecules. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 248: 173-175.
  • Schroder, K., Staemmler, V., Smith, M. D., Flower, D. R., & and Jaquet, R. (1991). Excitation of the fine-structure transitions of C in collisions with ortho- and para-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 24: 2487-2502.
  • Brand, P.W.J.L. (1991). Book Review: Molecular collisions in the interstellar medium / Cambridge U Press, 1990. Observatory -Didcot- 111: 42-.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forets & G. (1991). Thermal and chemical evolution of interstellar clouds: Erratum. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 249: 191-787.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Flower, D. R. and Millar, T. J. (1991). Chemical processes in dark interstellar clouds - The effects of CNO depletion. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 253: 217-221.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Flower, D. R. and Herbst, E. (1991). Thermal and chemical evolution of interstellar clouds - Complex molecule formation. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 253: 359-363.
  • Slim, H. A., Heck, E. L., Bransden, B. H. & Flower, D. R. (1991). Charge transfer and excitation in proton-helium collisions. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 24(7): 1683-1694.
  • Slim, H. A., Heck, E. L., Bransden, B. H. & Flower, D. R. (1991). Theoretical differential cross sections for proton-helium scattering at intermediate energies. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 24(9): 2353-2358.
  • Staemmler, V. & Flower, D.R. (1991). Excitation of the C(2p2. 3Pj) fine structure states in collisions with He(1s2 1S0). "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 24: 2343-2351.
  • Forster, C., Cooper, I. L., Dickinson, A. S., Flower, D. & R. and Mendez, L. (1991). Charge transfer in slow collisions of Ne2+ with H. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 24: 3433-3444.
  • Flower, D.R. (1990). Excitation of fine structure transitions in O by H2. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 242: 1P-3P.
  • Heck, L., Flower, D.R., Pineau Des Forêts & G. (1990). A computer program for calculating the structure of magnetohydrodynamical shocks in interstellar clouds. Computer Physics Communications 58: 169-179.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Roueff, E. and Flower, D. R. (1990). The formation of nitrogen-bearing species in dark interstellar clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 244: 668-674.
  • Offer, A. & Flower, D.R. (1990). Rotational excitation of OH by para- and ortho-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 23: L391-L394.
  • Dyson, J. (1990). Book Review: Molecular collisions in the interstellar medium / Cambridge U Press, 1990. Astrophysics and Space Science 174: 327-.
  • Slim HA, Heck EL, Bransden BH & Flower DR (1990). Calculated Cross-sections For Electron-capture By Protons From Helium Into The H(n = 3) Level. Journal Of Physics B-atomic Molecular And Optical Physics 23: L611-L617.
  • Flower, D.R., Offer, A. & Schilke, P. (1990). The (j, k) = (3, 3) inversion line of NH3 - A possible interstellar chronometer. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 244: 4P-8P.
  • Flower, D. R., Heck, L., Pineau des Forets, G. and & Millar, T. J. (1990). The erosion of PAH molecules within shocks in dark clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 242: 512-516.
  • Flower, D. (1990). Book Review - Molecular Collisions in the Interstellar Medium. Science 249: 1314-.
  • Flower, D.R. & Pineau-Des-Forets, G. (1990). Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Interstellar Clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 247: 500-.
  • Flower, D. R., Heck, L. and Pineau des Forets, G. (1989). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. IX - The influence of PAH molecules on the ratio C/CO in dark clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 239: 741-750.
  • Flower, D.R. (1989). Atomic and molecular processes in interstellar shocks. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 22: 2319-2339.
  • Flower, D.R. (1989). Molecular collision processes in interstellar clouds. Physics Reports 174: 1-66.
  • Pineau de Forets, G., Roueff, E. and Flower, D. R. (1989). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. X - The chemical fractionation of deuterium in dark clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 240: 167-177.
  • Offer, A. & Flower, D.R. (1989). Propensity rules in NH3-H2 collisions. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 22: L439-L443.
  • Shingal, R., Bransden, B. H. and Flower, D. R. (1989). Excitation and ionization in collisions between ground-state hydrogen atoms. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 22: 855-862.
  • Flower, D.R. (1988). Inelastic collisions between C(+) (2P) and H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 21: L451-L453.
  • Danby, G., Flower, D. R., Valiron, P., Schilke, P. and & Walmsley, C. M. (1988). A recalibration of the interstellar ammonia thermometer. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 235: 229-238.
  • Monteiro, T. S., Flower, D. R., Pineau des Forets, G. and & Roueff, E. (1988). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. VII - The photodissociation of molecular hydrogen. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 234: 863-872.
  • des Forets, G. Pineau, Flower, D. R. and Dalgarno, A. (1988). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. VIII - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dark clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 235: 621-631.
  • Allan, R. J., Clegg, R. E. S., Dickinson, A. S. and & Flower, D. R. (1988). Mg-H(+) charge transfer and MG line intensities in gaseous nebulae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 235: 1245-1255.
  • Forster, C., Shingal, R., Flower, D. R., Bransden, B. H., & and Dickinson, A. S. (1988). Total and differential cross sections for charge transfer in He(2+)-He(+) collisions - Trajectory effects. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 21: 3941-3948.
  • Pineau des Forets, G. & Flower, D.R. (1987). Chemical evidence for ambipolar diffusion in interstellar shocks - A suggested observational test. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 228: 1P-4P.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forets & G. (1987). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. V - Solutions for J-type shocks as an initial value problem. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 224: 403-411.
  • Danby, G., Flower, D. R., Valiron, P., Kochanski, E., & Kurdi, L. and Diercksen, G. H. F. (1987). CORRIGENDUM: Rotational excitation of para-NH3 by para-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 20: 3937-.
  • Danby, G., Flower, D. R., Valiron, P., Kochanski, E. and & Kurdi, L. (1987). Rotational excitation of para-NH3 by para-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 20: 1039-1058.
  • Danby, G., Flower, D. R. and Monteiro, T. S. (1987). Rotationally inelastic collisions between H2 molecules in interstellar magnetohydrodynamical shocks. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 226: 739-745.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Flower, D. R., Hartquist, T. W., & and Millar, T. J. (1987). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. VI - The formation of molecules containing two or three carbon atoms. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 227: 993-1011.
  • Dewangan, D. P., Flower, D. R. and Alexander, M. H. (1987). Rotational excitation of OH by para-H2:rate coefficients calculated in an intermediate coupling representation. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 226: 505-512.
  • Monteiro, T.S. & Flower, D.R. (1987). Excitation of O I and C I forbidden-line fine structure transitions by He and H2 - A neglected selection rule. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 228: 101-107.
  • Shingal, R., Bransden, B. H. and Flower, D. R. (1987). Formation of H(2s) and H(2p) in collisions between ground-state hydrogen atoms. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 20: L477-L480.
  • Flower, D. R. and Pineau-Des-Forets, G. (1986). Multicomponent Reacting Magnetohydrodynamics Flows - a Reply. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 220: 149-.
  • Dewangan, D. P., Flower, D. R. and Danby, G. (1986). Rotational excitation of OH by H2 - A comparison between theory and experiment. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 19: L747-L753.
  • Shingal, R., Bransden, B. H., Ermolaev, A. M., Flower, D. & R. and Newby, C. W. (1986). Charge transfer in H(+)-Na(0) collisions - Atomic orbital calculations. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 19: 309-320.
  • Shingal, R., Noble, C. J., Bransden, B. H. and Flower, D. & R. (1986). Semiclassical calculations of charge exchange and excitation in Na+-Li and Li+-Na collisions using atomic-orbital expansions. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 19: 3951-3964.
  • Danby, G., Flower, D. R., Kochanski, E., Kurdi, L. and & Valiron, P. (1986). Rotational excitation of ortho-NH3 by para-H. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 19: 2891-2906.
  • Flower, D. R., Pineau-Des-Forets, G. and Hartquist, T. W. (1986). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. II - Molecular hydrogen cooling and rotational level populations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 218: 729-741.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Flower, D. R., Hartquist, T. W., & and Dalgarno, A. (1986). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. III - The formation of CH(+) in diffuse clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 220: 801-824.
  • Allan, R.J., Shingal, R. & Flower, D.R. (1986). Charge transfer in H(+)-Na (3p) collisions - A possible ultraviolet laser mechanism. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 19: L251-L256.
  • Pineau des Forets, G., Roueff, E. and Flower, D. R. (1986). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. IV - The sulphur chemistry in diffuse clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 223: 743-756.
  • Flower, D.R. & Launay, J.M. (1985). Rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of CO by ortho- and para-H2. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 214: 271-277.
  • Flower, D.R. & Watt, G.D. (1985). Erratum - on the ORTHO-H2/PARA-H2 Ratio in Molecular Clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 213: 991-.
  • Shingal, R., Bransden, B. H. and Flower, D. R. (1985). Neutralisation in H(+) + H(-) collision. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 18: 2485-2491.
  • Dewangan, D.P. & Flower, D.R. (1985). Rotational excitation of OH by H2 - A clarification. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 18: L137-L140.
  • Flower, D. R., Pineau des Forets, G. and Hartquist, T. W. (1985). Theoretical studies of interstellar molecular shocks. I - General formulation and effects of the ion-molecule chemistry. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 216: 775-794.
  • Flower, D.R. & Watt, G.D. (1984). On the ortho-H2/para-H2 ratio in molecular clouds. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 209: 25-31.
  • Danby, G. & Flower, D.R. (1984). On the S0(0) and S1(0) spectra of the H2-H2 dimer. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 17: L867-L870.
  • Flower, D.R. & Pooley, G. (1984). Book-Review - Planetary Nebulae - I.A.U. Symposium NO.103. Observatory -Didcot- 104: 110-.
  • Flower, D. R., Goharji, A. and Cohen, M. (1984). Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae. X - Physical conditions in the compact planetary nebula SW ST 1. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 206: 293-304.
  • Baker, D.J. & Flower, D.R. (1984). Rovibrational excitation of (C-12)(O-16) by para-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 17: 119-130.
  • Baker, D.J. & Flower, D.R. (1984). Near-resonance vibrational relaxation of (C-12)(O-16) in collisions with para-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 17: 3901-3912.
  • Flower, D.R. & Gathier, R. (1984). Book-Review - Planetary Nebulae. Space Science Reviews 37: 401-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1984). Book-Review - Planetary Nebulae - I.A.U. Symposium NO.103. Sky and Telescope 67: 429-.
  • Flower, D.R. & Mayer, P. (1984). Book-Review - Planetary Nebulae - I.A.U. SYMP.103. Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of Czechoslovakia 35: 316-.
  • Baker, D.J. & Flower, D.R. (1984). Vibrational relaxation in collisions between 12C16O and para-H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 17: L829-L831.
  • Baker, D.J. & Flower, D.R. (1983). Long-range forces in heavy particle scattering. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 16: L515-L519.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau Des Forets & G. (1983). The dissipation of shock waves in the outer solar atmosphere - A reappraisal. Astronomy and Astrophysics 119: 321-323.
  • Flower, D.R. (1983). Book-Review - Planetary Nebulae - I.A.U. SYMP.103. Science 222: 1010-.
  • Dewangan, D.P. & Flower, D.R. (1983). Rotational excitation of OH by H2 - Calculations in intermediate coupling. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 16: 2157-2168.
  • Flower, D.R. (1983). Book-Review - Planetary Nebulae. Journal of the British Astronomical Association 94: 41-.
  • Danby, G. & Flower, D.R. (1983). Theoretical studies of van der Waals molecules: the H2-H2 dimer. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 16: 3411-3422.
  • Flower, D.R. & Kirkpatrick, D.J. (1982). Rovibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen in collisions with helium atoms. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 15: 1701-1710.
  • Flower, D.R. & Pineau-Des-Forets, G. (1982). Solar Emission Lines Produced in the Wake of a Shock Wave - Part Two - Line Profiles. Astronomy and Astrophysics 110: 163-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1982). Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae. VIII - The C/O abundance ratio in the Ring nebula. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 199: 15P-18P.
  • Flower, D.R. & Kirkpatrick, D.J. (1982). Rovibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen by helium. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 15: L11-L15.
  • Dewangan, D.P. & Flower, D.R. (1982). Collisional excitation of OH by H2 in the interstellar medium. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 199: 457-463.
  • Flower, D.R. & Guilloteau, S. (1982). Pumping of H II/OH masers - IR line overlaps and collisional excitation by H2. Astronomy and Astrophysics 114: 238-244.
  • Flower, D. R., Penn, C. J. and Seaton, M. J. (1982). Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae. IX - High-dispersion observations of NGC 7662. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 201: 39P-43P.
  • Flower, D. R., Guilloteau, S. and Hartquist, T. W. (1982). OH cooling of interstellar shocks and masers. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 200: 55P-59P.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau Des Forets & G. (1981). Solar emission lines produced in the wake of a shock wave. I - The thermodynamic cycle. Astronomy and Astrophysics 93: 347-352.
  • Dewangan, D.P. & Flower, D.R. (1981). Collisional excitation of OH by H2 - Transitions within the ground-state Lambda doublet. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 14: L425-L429.
  • Flower, D.R. & Penn, C.J. (1981). The ultraviolet spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 6572. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 194: 13P-16P.
  • Flower, D.R. (1981). Chemical Process in the Shocked Interseller Gas: Discussion. "Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences" 303: 521-522.
  • Clavel, J., Flower, D. R. and Seaton, M. J. (1981). Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae. V - The C II lambda 1335 dielectronic recombination lines in IC 418. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 197: 301-311.
  • Dickinson, A.S. & Flower, D.R. (1981). Electron Collisional Excitation of Interstellar Molecular Ions. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 196: 297-.
  • Dewangan, D.P. & Flower, D.R. (1981). Rotational excitation of OH by H2 at thermal energies. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 14: 2179-2190.
  • Clavel, J. & Flower, D.R. (1980). A search for absorption in the fourth positive system of CO in the spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 418. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 190(1): 1P-4P.
  • Flower, D.R. (1980). Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae. II - The young planetary nebula IC 4997. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 193: 511-520.
  • Flower, D.R. & Perinotto, M. (1980). The absorption of He II LY alpha photons in planetary nebulae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 191: 301-308.
  • Flower, D.R. (1980). Rotational excitation of OH by H2 at interstellar temperatures. Astronomy and Astrophysics 83: 33-37.
  • Flower, D.R. & Roueff, E. (1979). On the formation and destruction of HeH/+/ in gaseous nebulae and the associated infra-red emission line spectrum. Astronomy and Astrophysics 72: 361-366.
  • Flower, D.R. (1979). Collisional pumping of a-doublet transitions in CH and OH by H2 and He. Chemical Physics Letters 67: 475-478.
  • Flower, D.R., Nussbaumer, H. & Schild, H. (1979). The EUV spectra of young planetary nebulae. Astronomy and Astrophysics 72: L1-L3.
  • Flower, D.R. (1979). Electron collisional excitation of rotational transitions in CH/+/ and HeH/+/. Astronomy and Astrophysics 73: 237-239.
  • Flower, D.R. (1977). The dissipation of shock waves in the outer solar atmosphere. Astronomy and Astrophysics 58: 185-188.
  • Flower, D.R. & Launay, J.-M. (1977). Excitation of the fine-structure transition of C+ in collisions with molecular hydrogen. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 10: L229-L233.
  • Flower, D.R. (1977). Excitation of the Fe XII spectrum in the solar corona. Astronomy and Astrophysics 54: 163-166.
  • Flower, D.R. & Launay, J.M. (1977). Molecular collision processes. II - Excitation of the fine-structure transition of C/+/ in collisions with H2. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 10: 3673-3681.
  • Flower, D.R. (1977). Atomic Data for the Coronal Ion Fe8~. Astronomy and Astrophysics 56: 451-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1976). Theoretical predictions of the ultra-violet spectra of planetary nebulae. Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana 47: 313-335.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau Des Forets & G. (1976). Shock wave heating of the outer solar atmosphere. Astronomy and Astrophysics 52: 191-198.
  • Flower, D.R. & Nussbaumer, H. (1975). The Emission of Li-like Ions from the Solar Corona. Astronomy and Astrophysics 39: 295-.
  • Flower, D.R. & Nussbaumer, H. (1975). On the extreme ultraviolet solar emission of B-like ions - NA VII, SI X and S XII. Astronomy and Astrophysics 45: 349-352.
  • Flower, D.R. & Nussbaumer, H. (1975). On the extreme ultraviolet solar emission of B-like ions - O IV. Astronomy and Astrophysics 45: 145-150.
  • Flower, D.R. & Nussbaumer, H. (1975). Relative intensities of solar emission lines of ions in the sodium isoelectronic sequence. Astronomy and Astrophysics 42: 265-268.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau Des Forets & G. (1974). On the analysis of solar XUV observations and the structure of the chromosphere-corona transition region. Astronomy and Astrophysics 37: 297-300.
  • Flower, D.R. & Nussbaumer, H. (1974). On the Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Spectrum of Fe xni. Astronomy and Astrophysics 31: 353-.
  • Flower, D.R., Pineau des Forets & G. (1973). Excitation of the Fe XIII Spectrum in the Solar Corona. Astronomy and Astrophysics 24: 181-.
  • Flower, D.R. & Launay, J.M. (1973). Electron Collisional Excitation of C+2. Astronomy and Astrophysics 29: 321-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1972). On the Interpretation of the Relative Intensities of the Solar XUV Lines of Lithium-Like Ions. Space Science Reviews 13: 738-.
  • Magnant, F., Fort, B. & Flower, D.R. (1972). On the Significance of the Existence of Classes for Visible Coronal Lines. Astronomy and Astrophysics 17: 403-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1972). On the Interpretation of the Relative Intensities of the Solar XUV Lines of Ions in the Lithium Isoelectronic Sequence. Astronomy and Astrophysics 17: 201-.
  • Flower, D.R. & Launay, J.M. (1972). On the validity of the distorted wave method in electron-atom collision theory. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 5: L207-L210.
  • Flower, D.R. (1971). Collision strengths for electron excitation of highly ionized, complex atoms. "Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics" 4: 697-705.
  • Flower, D.R. & Jordan, C. (1971). On the Identffication of the A417 Line in the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum. Astronomy and Astrophysics 14: 473-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1970). Infra-red line spectra of planetary nebulae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 147: 245-.
  • Flower, D.R. & Seaton, M.J. (1969). Forbidden line radiation from gaseous nebulae. Mémoires de la Société royale des sciences de Liège 17: 251-.
  • Flower, D.R. & Seaton, M.J. (1969). A program to calculate radiative recombination coefficients of hydrogenic ions. Computer Physics Communications 1: 31-34.
  • Flower, D.R. (1969). The ionization structure of planetary nebulae-VIII. Models of the nebulae NGC 7662 and IC 418. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 146: 243-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1969). The ionization structure of planetary nebulae-VII. The heavy elements. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 146: 171-.
  • Flower, D.R. (1968). Computer Models of the Planetary Nebulae NGC 7662 and IC 418. Astrophysical Journal Letters 2: 205-.