|Professor in the Department of Psychology||L54||+44 (0) 191 33 43247|
|DTP Director in the Faculty of Social Sciences and Health|
|Fellow in the Durham Research Methods Centre|
|Associate Fellow in the Institute of Advanced Study|
|Fellow of the Wolfson Research Institute for Health and Wellbeing||+44 (0) 191 33 43247|
I joined the Department of Psychology at Durham University in 2013 having previously been a member of academic staff in the School of Psychology at Newcastle University and having completed my PhD at Stirling University.
Since arriving in Durham I have been course director for the MSc Developmental Psychopathology, MA Research Methods (Dev Psy), and co-director for the MSc Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. I have also been research group leader for Developmental Science, and Director of Research for the Department of Psychology. Outside of Psychology I sit on the university Research Management Committee, ESRC Liaison Group and the IAA-ESRC Steering Group. I am also part of the Women's Network of the University and involved in mentoring.
In 2017, with Dr Mary Hanley I founded the Centre for Neurodiversity and Development - visit Centre for Neurodiversity and Development - Durham University for further information.
In August 2018, I became the Director of the NINE DTP - the North East of England and Northern Ireland doctoral training partnership for the social sciences (ESRC funded) - visit www.ninedtp.ac.uk for further information.
In September 2020, I was elected as Chair of the Developmental Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. I am a British Psychological Society Chartered Psychologist and Associate Fellow. In 2014 I was awarded the Margaret Donaldson Prize by the British Psychological Society (Developmental Psychology Section) for recognition of my cross-syndrome research on social perception / social cognition in neurodevelopmental conditions and my "contribution to theory / innovative methodology".
I am a professor of developmental psychology and Director of the Centre for Neurodiversity & Development interested in neurotypical development, neurodevelopmental conditions, and neurodiversity.
My research predominantly focuses on social perception and social cognition in Williams syndrome (WS) and Autism. Within this area I have used a variety of eye tracking and innovative empirical meothds to understand areas of relative proficiency or challenge (exploring syndrome-specific signatures or cross-syndrome overlaps and having theoretical implications). I have used face perception and the interpretion of social cues from faces as a method of exploring communication strategies and social behaviours / tendancies associated with these conditions. I have more recently become interested in issues of social vulnerability associated with Williams syndrome - such as increased approach to unfamiliar people and awareness of stranger danger. Therefore the work that I conduct has both theoretical and applied relevance.
Linking to the above area of interest I am focusing on the links between social behaviours and other facets of these neurodevelopmental conditions, such as anxiety, sensory processing and executive functions. A large focus of recent research has also been on supporting families of individuals with WS, especially in relation to heightened anxiety.
Linking the two aforementioned areas of research activity I am particularly interested in understanding the needs of the 'whole' individual and how we need to encompass areas of cognition and behaviour in developing theory, but also in providing support and interventions. Understanding the 'whole' also extends to understanding the family system. Work we have conducted on supporting autistic students is especially relevant here as we have pulled together elements of attention, anxiety, and aorusal in the classroom to understand how best to support autistic pupils in achieving their best (see Centre website and the 'Triple A' resource developed from our underpinning research in this area).
- 2019: Chair Elect - BPS Developmental Psychology Section:
- 2017: ESRC Grant Assessment Panel A member:
Chapter in book
- Riby, D M (2011). Face Processing and Social Interactions. In Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan. Farran, E. & Karmiloff-Smith, A. Oxford University Press.
- Riby, D M, Bruce, V & Jawaid, A (2011). Everyone’s friend? The case of Williams syndrome. In Pathological Altruism. Oakley, B., Knafo, A., Madhavan, G. & Wilson, D. S. Ocford University Press.
- Riby, D M & Porter, M (2010). Williams syndrome. In ). Developmental Disorders & Interventions: Advances in Child Development and Behavior. Holmes, J. Academic Press.
- Brock, J, Einav, S & Riby, D M (2008). The other end of the spectrum? Social cognition in Williams syndrome. In Social cognition: Development, Neuroscience and Autism. Reid, V. & Striano, T Blackwell.
- van Herwegen, J & Riby, D M (2014). Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Research Challenges and Solutions. Psychology Press.
- Ridley, E., Arnott, B., Riby, D. M., Burt, D. M., Hanley, M. & Leekam, S. (Accepted). The Quality of Everyday Eye Contact in Williams Syndrome: Insights from Cross Syndrome Comparisons. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
- Kleberg, Johan Lundin, Riby, Deborah, Fawcett, Christine, Bjorlin Avdic, Hanna, Frick, Matilda A., Brocki, Karin C., Hogstrom, Jens, Serlachius, Eva, Nordgren, Ann & Willfors, Charlotte (2022). Williams syndrome: reduced orienting to other’s eyes in a hypersocial phenotype. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 1-12.
- Willfors, C., Riby, D. M., Van Der Poll, M., Ekholm, K., Avdic Björlin, H., Kleberg, J. L. & Nordgren, A. (2021). Williams syndrome: On the role of intellectual abilities in anxiety. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 16: 472.
- Greer, Joanna M. H., Riby, Deborah M., McMullon, Mhairi E. G., Hamilton, Colin & Riby, Leigh M. (2021). An EEG investigation of alpha and beta activity during resting states in adults with Williams syndrome. BMC Psychology 9(1): 72.
- Grahame, V., Dixon, L., Fletcher-Watson, S., Garland, D., Glod, M., Goodwin, J., Grayson, Z. Heron, S., Honey, E., Iversen, R., Kasim, A. S., Kernohan, A., Kharatikoopaei, E., Le Couteur, A., Mackie, L., Mathias, A., Probert, H., Riby, D. M., Rob, P., Rogan, L., Thompson, S., Vale, L., Walls, E., Webb, E. I., Weetman, E., Wolstenhulme, F., Wood, R. & Rodgers, J. (2021). A clinical and cost effectiveness trial of a parent group intervention to manage challenging restricted and repetitive behaviours in young children with autism spectrum disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 22: 240.
- Ridley, E., Arnott, B., Riby, D. M., Burt, M. D., Hanley, M. & Leekam, S. R. (2021). The Quality of Everyday Eye Contact in Williams Syndrome: Insights from Cross-syndrome Comparisons. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
- McDougal, E., Riby, D. M. & Hanley, E. (2020). Teacher insights into the barriers and facilitators of learning in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 79: 101674.
- Stanford, C.E., Hastings, R.P., Riby, D.M., Archer, H.J., Page, S.E. & Cebula, K. (2020). Psychological Distress and Positive Gain in Mothers of Children with Autism, With or Without Other Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
- McDougal, E. Riby, D. M. & Hanley, M. (2020). Profiles of academic achievement and attention in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities (Special edition) 106: 103749.
- South, M., Hanley, M., Normansell-Mossa, K., Russell, N. C. C., Cawthorne, T. & Riby, D. M. (2021). ‘Intolerance of Uncertainty’ mediates the relationship between social profile and anxiety in both Williams Syndrome and autism. Autism Research 14(9): 1986-1995.
- Heaton, P., Ridley, E., Makhmood, S. & Riby, D.M. (2020). Hearing the feeling: Auditory emotion perception in Williams Syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities 103: 103660.
- Glod, M., Riby, D. M. & Rodgers, J. (2020). Sensory Processing Profiles and Autistic Symptoms as Predictive Factors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 64(8): 657-665.
- Gillooly, A. E., Riby, D. M., Durkin, K. & Rhodes, S. M. (2021). Peer Relationships in Children with Williams Syndrome: Parent and Teacher Insights. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 51(1): 196-178.
- Ridley, E., Riby, D. M. & Leekam, S. (2020). A cross-syndrome approach to the social phenotype of neurodevelopmental disorders: Focusing on social vulnerability and social interaction style. Research in Developmental Disabilities 100: 103604.
- Hanley, M., Riby, D. M., Derges, MJ., Douligeri, A. Philyaw, Z., Ikeda, T., Monden, Y., Shimoizumi, H., Yamagata, T. & Hirai, M. (2020). Does culture shape face perception in autism? Cross-cultural evidence of the own-race advantage from the UK and Japan. Developmental Science 23(5): e12942.
- Jones, E.K., Hanley, M. & Riby, D.M. (2020). Distraction, Distress and Diversity: Exploring the impact of sensory processing differences on learning and school life for pupils with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 72: 101515.
- Cebula, K., Gillooly, A., Coulthard, L. K., Riby, D. M. & Hastings, R. P. (2019). Siblings of children with Williams syndrome: Correlates of psychosocial adjustment and sibling relationship quality. Research in Developmental Disabilities 94: 103496.
- Glod, M., Riby, D. M. & Rodgers, J. (2019). Sensory Processing in Williams Syndrome: A Narrative Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7: 32-45.
- Glod, Magdalena, Riby, Deborah M. & Rodgers, Jacqui (2019). Short Report: Relationships between Sensory Processing, Repetitive Behaviours, Anxiety, and Intolerance of Uncertainty in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome. Autism Research 12(5): 759-765.
- Remington, A., Hanley, M., O’Brien, S., Riby, D. M. & Swettenham, J. (2019). Implications of capacity in the classroom: Simplifying tasks for autistic children may not be the answer. Research in Developmental Disabilities 85: 197-204.
- Gurbuz, E., Hanley, M. & Riby, D M. (2019). University Students with Autism: The Social and Academic Experiences of University in the UK. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 49(2): 617-631.
- Ng-Cordell, Elise, Hanley, Mary, Alyssa, Kelly & Riby, Deborah M. (2018). Anxiety in Williams Syndrome: The role of social behaviour, executive functions and change over time. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 48(3): 796-808.
- Crawford, H., Moss, J., Oliver, C. & Riby, D.M. (2017). Differential effects of anxiety and autism on social scene scanning in males with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 9(1): 9.
- Riby, D. M., Ridley, E., Lough, E. & Hanley, M. (2017). Social vulnerability in Williams syndrome: A tendency to approach strangers. International Review of Research on Developmental Disabilities 52: 175-199.
- Hanley, Mary, Khairat, Mariam, Taylor, Korey, Wilson, Rachel, Cole-Fletcher, Rachel & Riby, Deborah M. (2017). Classroom displays - Attraction or Distraction? Evidence of impact on attention and learning from children with and without autism. Developmental Psychology 53(7): 1265-1275.
- Greer, J.M.H., Hamilton, C., McMullon, M. E. G., Riby, D. M. & Riby, L. M. (2017). An Event Related Potential Study of Inhibitory and Attentional Control in Williams Syndrome Adults. Plos One 12(2): e0170180.
- Kirk, Hannah E., Gray, Kylie, Riby, Deborah M., Taffe, John & Cornish, Kim M. (2017). Visual attention and academic performance in children with developmental disabilities and behavioural attention deficits. Developmental Science 20(6): e12468.
- Glod, M., Riby, D. M., Honey, E. & Rodgers, J. (2017). Sensory Atypicalities in Dyads of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Parents. Autism Research 10(3): 531-538.
- Watts, S. J., Rodgers, J. & Riby, D. M. (2016). A systematic review of the evidence for hyporesponsivity in ASD. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3(4): 285-301.
- Lough, E., Flynn, E. & Riby, D. M. (2016). Personal space regulation in Williams syndrome: The effect of familiarity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 46(10): 3207-3215.
- Fletcher, F. E., Foster-Owens, M., Conduit, R., Rinehart, N. J., Riby, D. M. & Cornish, K. M. (2017). The developmental trajectory of parent-report and objective sleep profiles in autism spectrum disorder: Associations with anxiety and bedtime routines. Autism 21(4): 493-503.
- Lough, E., Rodgers, J., Janes, E., Little, K. & Riby, D. M. (2016). Parent insights into atypicalities of social approach behaviour in Williams syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 60(11): 1097-1108.
- Lough, E., Hanley, M., Rodgers, J., South, M., Kirk, H., Kennedy, D. & Riby, D. M. (2015). Violations of Personal Space in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: Insights from the Social Responsiveness Scale. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 45(12): 4101-4108.
- Hanley, M., Riby, D.M., Carty, C., Melaugh McAteer, A., Kennedy, A. & McPhillips, M. (2015). The use of eye-tracking to explore social difficulties in cognitively able students with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot investigation. Autism 19(7): 868-873.
- Glod, M., Riby, D. M., Honey, E. & Rodgers, J. (2015). Psychological Correlates of Sensory Processing Patterns in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2(2): 199-221.
- Kirk, H., Gray, K., Riby D. M. & Cornish, K. M. (2015). Cognitive training as a resolution for early executive function difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities 38: 145-160.
- Gillespie-Smith, K., Doherty-Sneddon, G., Hancock, P. J. B. & Riby, D. M. (2014). That looks familiar: attention allocation to familiar and unfamiliar faces in children with autism spectrum disorder. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 19(6): 554-569.
- Lough, E., Flynn, E. & Riby, D. M. (2015). Mapping real-world to online vulnerability in young people with developmental disorders: Illustrations from autism and Williams syndrome. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2(1): 1-7.
- Hanley, M., Riby, D. M., McCormack, T., Carty, C., Coyle, L., Crozier, N., Robinson, J. & McPhillips, M. (2014). Attention during social interaction in children with autism: Comparison to specific language impairment, typical development, and links to social cognition. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 8(7): 908-924.
- Greer, J., Hamilton, C., Riby, D. M. & Riby, L. M. (2014). Deeper processing is beneficial during episodic memory encoding for adults with Williams syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities 35(7): 1720-1726.
- Riby, D. M., Hanley, M., Kirk, H., Clark, F., Little, K., Fleck, R., Janes, E., Kelso, L., O’Kane, F., Cole-Fletcher, R., Allday, M. H., Hocking, D., Cornish, K. & Rodgers, J. (2014). The Interplay Between Anxiety and Social Functioning in Williams Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 44(5): 1220-1229.
- Janes, E., Riby, D. M. & Rodgers, J. (2014). Exploring the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behaviours and abnormal sensory processing in children with Williams Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 58(8): 746-757.
- Riby, D.M., Kirk, H., Hanley, M. & Riby, L.M. (2014). Stranger Danger Awareness in Williams Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 58(6): 572-582.
- Kirk, H, Gilmour, A, Riby, D M & Dudley, R (2013). Paranoid Ideation and Assessments of Trust. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology 4(4): 360-367.
- Riby, D M, Hancock, P J B, Jones, N & Hanley, M (2013). Spontaneous and cued gaze-following in autism and Williams syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 5(1): 13.
- Hanley, M., McPhillips, M., Mulhern, G. & Riby, D. M. (2013). Spontaneous attention to faces in Asperger Syndrome using ecologically valid static stimuli. Autism 17(6): 754-761.
- Little, K., Riby, D. M., Janes, E., Fleck, R., Clark, F. & Rodgers, J. (2013). Heterogeneity of social approach behaviour in Williams syndrome: The role of response inhibition. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34(3): 959-967.
- Kirk, H. E., Hocking, D. R., Riby, D. M. & Cornish, K. M. (2013). Linking social behaviour and anxiety to attention to emotional faces in Williams syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34(12): 4608-4616.
- Gillespie-Smith, K., Riby, D.M., Hancock, P.J.B. & Doherty-Sneddon, G. (2013). Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attend typically to faces and objects presented within their picture communication systems. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 58(5): 459-470.
- Hanley, M., Riby, D. M., Caswell, S., Rooney, S. & Back, E. (2013). Looking and Thinking: How individuals with Williams syndrome make judgements about mental states. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34(12): 4466-4476.
- Greer, J., Riby, D. M., Hamiliton, C. & Riby, L. M. (2013). Attentional Lapse and Inhibition Control in Adults with Williams Syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34(11): 4170-4177.
- Riby, D. M., Janes, E. & Rodgers, J. (2013). Brief report: Exploring the relationship between repetitive behaviours and sensory processing in Williams syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 43(2): 478-482.
- Doherty-Sneddon, G, Whittle, L & Riby, D M (2013). Gaze Aversion during Social Interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities 34(1): 616-626.
- Slessor, G., Riby, D. M. & Finnerty, A. N. (2013). Age-related Differences in Processing Face Configuration: The Importance of the Eye Region. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 68(2): 228-231.
- Riby, D M, Brown, P H, Jones, N & Hanley, M (2012). Faces cause less distraction in Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 42(4): 634-639.
- Jawaid, A, Riby, D M, Owens, J, White, S W, Tarar, T & Schulz, P. E (2012). ‘Too withdrawn’ or ‘too friendly’ considering social vulnerability in two neuro-developmental disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 56(4): 335-350.
- Riby, D M, Whittle, L & Doherty-Sneddon, G (2012). Physiological Reactivity to Faces via Live and Video Mediated Communication in Typical and Atypical Development. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 34(4): 385-395.
- Riby, D M, Doherty-Sneddon, G & Whittle, L (2012). Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development. Developmental Science 15(2): 281-291.
- Doherty-Sneddon, G, Riby, D M & Whittle, L (2012). Gaze aversion as a cognitive load management strategy in autism spectrum disorder and Williams syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53(4): 420-430.
- Quinn, S, O’Hare, O & Riby, D M (2012). How comparable are children and adults in perceiving an optimal tempo for music? The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131(5): 3595-3598.
- Rodgers, J, Riby, D M, Janes, E, Connolly, B & McConachie, H (2012). Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams syndrome: A Cross-syndrome Comparison. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 42(2): 175-180.
- Rhodes, S, Riby, D M, Fraser, E M & Campbell, L E (2011). The extent of working memory deficits associated with Williams syndrome: Exploration of verbal and spatial domains and executively controlled processes. Brain and Cognition 77(2): 208-214.
- Riby, D M, Jones, N, Brown, P H, Robinson, L, Langton, S R H, Bruce, V. & Riby, L. M (2011). Attention to faces in Williams syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 41(9): 1228-1239.
- Rhodes, S, Riby, D M, Matthews, K & Coghill, D R (2011). ADHD and Williams syndrome: shared behavioural and neuropsychological profiles. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 33(1): 147-156.
- Riby, D M, Doherty-Sneddon, G & Bruce, V (2011). Exploring face perception in disorders of development: Evidence from Williams syndrome and autism. Journal of Neuropsychology 2(1): 47-64.
- Riby, D M (2010). Show me your eyes: Evidence from Williams syndrome. Visual Cognition 18(6): 801-815.
- Riby, D M & Back, E (2010). Can individuals with Williams syndrome interpret mental states from moving faces? Neuropsychologia 48(7): 1914-1922.
- Rhodes, S, Riby, D M, Park, J, Fraser, E & Campbell, L (2010). Neuropsychological functioning and executive control in WS. Neuropsychologia 48(5): 1216-1226.
- Jawaid, A, Riby, D M, Egridere, S, Schmolck, H, Kass, J S & Schulz, P. E (2010). Approachability in Williams Syndrome. Neuropsychologia 48(5): 1521-1523.
- Riby, D M & Hancock, P J B (2009). Do faces capture the attention of individuals with Williams syndrome or Autism? Evidence from tracking eye movements. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 39(3): 421-431.
- Riby, D M & Hancock, P J B (2009). Looking at Movies and Cartoons: Eye-tracking evidence from Williams syndrome and Autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 53(2): 169-181.
- Riby, D M, Riby, L M & Reay, J (2009). Differential sensitivity to rotations of facial features in the Thatcher illusion. Psychological Reports 105(3): 721-726.
- Doherty-Sneddon, G, Riby, D M, Calderwood, L & Ainsworth, L (2009). Stuck on you: face –to- face arousal and gaze aversion in Williams syndrome. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 14(6): 510-523.
- Riby, D M, Doherty-Sneddon, G & Bruce, V (2009). The eyes or the mouth? Feature salience and unfamiliar face processing in Williams syndrome and autism. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 62(1): 189-203.
- Riby, D M & Doherty, M J (2009). Tracking eye movements proves informative for the study of gaze direction detection in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 3(3): 723-733.
- Riby, L M, McLaughlin, J & Riby, D M (2008). Lifestyle, glucose regulation and cognitive enhancing properties of glucose load in middle-aged adults. British Journal of Nutrition 100(05): 1128-1134.
- Riby, D M, Doherty-Sneddon, G & Bruce, V (2008). Atypical unfamiliar face processing in Williams syndrome: What can it tell us about typical familiarity effects? Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 13(1): 47-58.
- Riby, D M & Hancock, P J B (2008). Viewing it differently: Social scene perception in Williams syndrome and Autism. Neuropsychologia 46(11): 2855-2860.
- Brock, J, Jarrold, C, Farran, E K, Laws, G & Riby, D M (2007). Do children with Williams syndrome really have good vocabulary knowledge? Methods for comparing cognitive and linguistic abilities in developmental disorders. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 21(9): 673-688.
- Langton, S R H, O'Donnell, C, Riby, D M & Ballantyne, C (2006). Gaze cues influence the allocation of attention in natural scene viewing. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 59(12): 2056-2064.
- Bayliss, D M, Jarrold, C, Baddeley, A D, Gunn, D M & Leigh, E (2005). Mapping the developmental constraints on working memory span performance. Developmental Psychology 41(4): 579-597.
- Gunn, D M & Jarrold, C (2004). Raven's matrices performance in Down Syndrome: Evidence of unusual errors. Research in Developmental Disabilities 25(5): 443-457.
- Laws, G & Gunn, D M (2004). ). Phonological memory as a predictor of language development in Down Syndrome: A five-year follow up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45(2): 326-337.
- Jarrold, C, Cowan, N, Hewes, A K & Riby, D M (2004). Speech timing and verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome and Williams syndrome: Evidence for comparable yet contrasting deficits. Journal of Memory and Language 51(3): 365-381.
- Bayliss, D, Jarrold, C, Gunn, D M & Baddeley, A D (2003). The complexities of complex span: Explaining individual differences in working memory in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132(1): 71-92.
- Bayliss, D M, Jarrold, C, Baddeley, A D & Gunn, D M (2003). The relationship between short-term memory and working memory: Complex span made simple? Memory 13(3-4): 414-421.
- Laws, G & Gunn, D M (2002). Relationships between reading, phonological skills and language development in individuals with Down syndrome: A five year follow-up study. Reading and Writing 15(5/6): 527-548.