Professor Ian Leigh
LL.B, LL.M, Solicitor
|Professor in Durham Law School||PCL119||+44 (0) 191 33 42824|
|Director of the Human Rights Centre|
After graduating in law and completing a research degree at the University College of Wales Aberystwyth Ian Leigh practised as a solicitor with a large local authority. On returning to academic life he held posts at several UK universities before being appointed as a Professor of Law in Durham in 1997. He has also held visiting positions at the universities of Otago, Florida, Melbourne, Virginia and Osgoode Hall Law School.
His research interests span legal aspects of religious liberty and freedom of conscience, national security, human rights adjudication and local government law. He is author of four research monographs and has edited a further three books, as well as publishing more than 60 articles in academic journals and chapters in edited collections. These include articles in the Cambridge Law Journal, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, McGill Law Journal, Modern Law Review, Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Parliamentary Affairs, Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, Public Law, Res Publica and the Review of International Studies.
His most recent books are Ahdar and Leigh Religious Freedom in the Liberal State (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 2013), International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability (Routledge, 2011, edited with Hans Born and Aidan Wills). and (edited, with Roger Masterman) Rights Protection under the UK’s Statutory Bill of Rights: Constitutional and Comparative Perspectives. (Proceedings of the British Academy/OUP, 2013).
His current research projects are on religious adjudication and human rights, the recognition of freedom of conscience and intelligence oversight in a changing national security environment.
Professor Leigh has presented his research at academic conferences and to meetings of policy-makers, parliamentarians, and judges in more than 30 countries. In his policy work he has acted as an expert for the European Union (European Parliament, European Commission support for police reform in Myanmar/Burma and the EU Fundamental Rights Agency), the Council of Europe (Venice Commission), the United Nations Development Programme, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
His policy reports include:
H .Born, I. Leigh and A. Wills, Making International Intelligence Cooperation Accountable (Norwegian Parliament Printing House, Oslo, 2015), 196pp http://www.dcaf.ch/Publications/Making-International-Intelligence-Cooperation-Accountable
Making Intelligence Accountable (Norwegian Parliament Publishing House, 2005), which has been translated into 14 languages http://www.dcaf.ch/Publications/Making-Intelligence-Accountable
and the Handbook on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Armed Forces Personnel, (OSCE, Office of Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Warsaw, 2008), also in 7 languages, (both with Hans Born). https://www.osce.org/odihr/31393?download=true
He acts as an international adviser to the ‘Impact of Religion – Challenges for Society, Law and Democracy’ Programme at the University of Uppsala, 2008-2018.
Religious freedom under international, domestic and comparative law.
Law and religion.
Freedom of conscience.
Accountability and oversight of intelligence and security bodies.
Human rights of armed forces under international, domestic and comparative law.
Law and Religion
The Individual and the State
Advanced Public Law
Born H, Leigh I and Wills A International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability (Routledge, 2011).
Masterman R and Leigh I Rights Protection under the UK’s Statutory Bill of Rights: Constitutional and Comparative Perspectives, (Proceedings of the British Academy Series No. 183,Oxford University Press 2013), 342 pp. + xi. ISBN 978-0-19-726537-6; ISSN 0068-1202.
Journal papers: academic
Leigh I 2014 ‘Local Government and Political Constitutionalism’ Public Law 43-55.
Leigh I and Hambler A 2014 ‘ Religious Symbols, Conscience, and the Rights of Others’ Oxford Journal of Law and Religion 3(1): 2-24.
Leigh I and Ahdar R 2012 ’ Post-Secularism and the European Court of Human Rights (or how God never really went away)’ Modern Law Review 75(6) 1065-1099.
Leigh I 2012 ‘Rebalancing Rights and National Security: Reforming UK Intelligence Oversight a Decade After 9/11’ Intelligence and National Security 27 (5): 721-737.
Leigh I 2012. ‘Balancing Religious Autonomy and Other Human Rights Under the European Convention’ Oxford Journal of Law and Religion 1:109-126.
‘Parliamentary and Specialised Oversight of Security and Intelligence Activities in the United Kingdom’,contribution to the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) -European University Institute (EUI) study on Parliamentary oversight of civilian security and intelligence agencies in relevant EU member states and other major democracies for the European Parliament Directorate-General Internal Policies of the Union – Directorate C – Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs (2011), pp. 290-301.
- Religious Liberty
- National Security Law
- Human Rights adjudication
- Local government law and politics
- Gender & Law at Durham
- Human Rights Centre
- Islam, Law and Modernity
- Law and Global Justice at Durham
Available for media contact about:
- English Law: constitutional law
- English Law: constitutional reform
- Leigh, I.D. & Born, Hans. (2008). Handbook on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Armed Forces Personnel. Warsaw: OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR).
- Leigh, I.D. & Masterman, RMW. (2008). Making Rights Real: the Human Rights Act in its First Decade. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
- Ahdar, R. & Leigh, I. D. (2005). Religious Freedom in the Liberal State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Leigh, I.D. (2000). Law, Politics and Local Democracy. Oxford University Press.
- Leigh, I.D. & Lustgarten, L. (1994). In From The Cold: National Security and Parliamentary Democracy. Oxford.: Clarendon Press.
Chapter in book
- Leigh, Ian (2019). The Courts and Conscience Claims. In Religious Beliefs and Conscientious Exemptions in a Liberal State. Adenitire, John Hart Publishing.
- Leigh, Ian (2019). Intelligence Law and Oversight in the UK. In Intelligence Law and Policies in Europe. Dietrich, Jan-Henrik & Sule, Satish C.H. Beck/ Hart. 535-585.
- Leigh, Ian (2018). The Legal Recognition of Freedom of Conscience as Conscientious Objection: Familiar Problems and New Lessons. In Research Handbook on Law and Religion. Ahdar, Rex J. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. 378-396.
- Leigh, Ian & Njord, Wegge (2018). Intelligence and Oversight at the outset of the 21st century. In Intelligence Oversight in the Twenty-First Century: Accountability in a Changing World. Leigh, Ian & Njord, Wegge Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 7-24.
- Leigh, I. (2018). Introduction, Chapter 1.Intelligence and Oversight at the outset of the 21st century and Chapter 5. Reappraising Intelligence Oversight in the UK. In Intelligence Oversight in the Twenty-First Century: Accountability in a Changing World. Leigh, I. & Wegge, N. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
- Leigh, I. (2017). Conceiving Freedom of Religion in Terms of Obedience to Conscience. In Supreme Court Law Review, 2nd Series. Toronto: LexisNexis Canada. 79: 175-202.
- Leigh, Ian (2017). Reversibility, Proportionality, and Conflicting Rights: Fernández Martínez v. Spain. In When Human Rights Clash at the European Court of Human Rights: Conflict or Harmony?. Smet, S. & Brems, E. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 218-241.
- Leigh, Ian. (2012). Objective, Critical and Pluralistic? Religious Education and Human Rights in the European Public Sphere. In Law, State and Religion in the New Europe: Debates and Dilemmas. Zucca, L. & Ungureanu,C. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 192-214.
- I. Leigh (2012). Religious Freedom in the UK After the Human Rights Act 1998. In Freedom of Religion under Bills of Rights. P. Babie & N. Rochow Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press. 239-252.
- I. Leigh (2011). The Changing Nature of Local and Regional Democracy. In The Changing Constitution (7th ed.). J. Jowell & D. Oliver Oxford Oxford University Press. 237-259.
- Leigh, I. (2010). Intelligence and the Law in the United Kingdom. In Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence. Johnson, L. New York: Oxford University Press. 640-656.
- Leigh, Ian (2010). The Role of Judges. In Commissions of Inquiry and National Security. Farson, Stuart & Phythian, Mark Santa Barbara, California: Praeger. 98-112.
- Leigh, I. (2010). Rendering an Account? Accountability, oversight and international intelligence cooperation. In Extraordinary Renditions and the Protection of Human Rights. Nowak, M. & Schmidt, R. Vienna: Neuer Wissenschaftlicher. 99-118.
- Leigh, I. (2009). ‘Homophobic Speech, Equality Denial and Religious Expression’. In Extreme Speech and Democracy. Hare, I. & Weinstein, J. Oxford Oxford University Press. 375-399.
- Leigh, Ian. (2008). ‘National Security, Religious Liberty and Counterterrorism’. In Intelligence, Security and Policing Post 9/11: The UK Response to the War on Terror. Moran, J. & Phythian, M. Palgrave. 115-134.
- Leigh, I.D. (2007). The Judicial Review and after the Human Rights Act. In Judicial Reasoning under the UK Human Rights Act. Fenwick, H., Phillipson, G. & Masterman, R. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 174-205.
- Leigh, I.D. (2007). Concluding Remarks. In Judicial Reasoning under the UK Human Rights Act. Fenwick, H., Phillipson, G. & Masterman, R. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 424-443.
- Leigh, I. (2007). ‘Parliamentary Oversight of Intelligence in the UK: A Critical Evaluation’. In Democratic Control of Intelligence Services: Containing Rogue Elephants. Born, H. & Caparini, M. Ashgate. 177-194.
- Leigh, I.D., Jowell, J. & Oliver, D. (2007). The New Local Government. In The Changing Constitution. Oxford University Press. 6.
- Leigh, I.D., Goldschmidt, J., & Loenen, T. (2006). Religously-Motivated Disciminatory Speech: the Case of Homophobia. In Religious Pluralism. Insentia.
- Leigh, I.D., Cane, P., & Conaghan, J. (2006). Entries on National Security, Interception of Communications, Surveillance, surreptitious, Official Secrets. In New Oxford Companion to Law. Oxford University Press.
- Leigh, I.D. (2006). The Evolution of Intelligence Accountability: A Legal Perspective. In The Handbook of Intelligence Studies. Johnson, L. Routledge.
- Leigh, I.D. (2006). (with H. Born) A Comparative Perspective on Accountability. In Strategic Intelligence. Johnson, L Prager. 5.
- Leigh, I.D. (2004). The New Local Government. In The Changing Constitution. Jowell, J., & Oliver, D. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 305-322.
- Leigh, I.D. (2003). Democratic control of Intelligence and Security Agencies: A Legal Framework. In Security Sector Reform: Institutions, Society and Good Governance. Bryden, A. & Fluri, P. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, 2003. 113-127.
- Leigh, I.D. (2003). Civil Society, Democracy and Law in Problems of Building Civil Society in Russia (Foundation for Political Centrism, Moscow, 2003). In Civil Society and the Security Sector: Concepts and Practices in New Democracies. Caparini, M., Fluri, P. & Molnar, F. Moscow.: 43-58.
- Leigh, I.D. (2002). Freedom of Religion: Public/Private, Rights/Wrongs. In Religious Liberty and Human Rights. Hill, M. University of Wales Press. 129-158.
- Leigh, I.D. (2002). Human Rights and Religion. In Dictionary of Contemporary Religion in the Western World. Partridge, C. Leicester.: IVP. 89-94.
- Leigh, I.D. (2002). The UK's Human Rights Act: An early Assessment. In Litigating Rights: Perspectives From Domestic and International Law. Huscroft G & Rishworth P Hart. 323-343.
- Leigh, I.D. (2001). Clashing Rights, Exemptions and Opt-Outs Religious Liberty and Homophobia. In Law and Religion. Lewis, A. & O'Dair, R. Current Legal Issues. 247-273.
- Leigh, I.D. (2000). The Legal Framework for Community Involvement. In The Voluntary Sector, the State and the Law. Dunn, A. Oxford.: Hart Publishing. 9-24.
- Leigh, I.D. (1998). Towards a Christian approach to religious liberty. In Christian Perspectives on Human Rights and Legal Philosophy. Beaumont, P. Paternoster Press. 31-72.
- Born, Hans., Leigh, Ian. & Wills, Aidan. (2011). International Intelligence Cooperation and Accountability. Studies in intelligence series. London: Routledge.
- Born, H., Johnson, L. & Leigh, I. D. (2005). Who's Watching the Spies? Establishing Intelligence Service Accountability. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books.
- Leigh, Ian (2022). Vaccination, conscientious objection and human rights. Legal Studies 1 - 20.
- Leigh, Ian (2019). Religious Adjudication and the European Convention on Human Rights. Oxford Journal of Law and Religion 8(1): 1-27.
- Leigh, Ian & Hambler, Andrew (2014). Religious Symbols, Conscience, and the Rights of Others. Oxford Journal of Law and Religion 3(1): 2-24.
- Leigh, Ian (2014). Local Government and Political Constitutionalism. Public Law 2014: 43-55.
- Leigh, I. & Ahdar, R. (2012). Post-Secularism and the European Court of Human Rights: or how God never really went away. Modern Law Review 75(6): 1064-1098.
- I. Leigh (2011). Damned if they do, Damned if they don’t: the European Court of Human Rights and the Protection of Religion from Attack. Res Publica 17(1): 55-73.
- Leigh, I. (2010). New Trends in Religious Liberty and the European Court of Human Rights. Ecclesiastical Law Journal 12(3): 266-279.
- Leigh, I. (2009). Recent Developments in Religious Liberty. Ecclesiastical Law Journal 11(1): 65-72.
- Leigh, I. (2009). Changing the Rules of the Game: Some Necessary Legal Reforms to United Kingdom Intelligence. Review of International Studies 35(4): 943-955.
- Leigh, Ian. (2008). Hatred, Sexual Orientation, Free Speech and Religious Liberty. Ecclesiastical Law Journal 10(3): 337-344.
- H. Born; & I. Leigh (2007). ‘Democratic Accountability of Intelligence Services’. Yearbook of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
- Leigh, I.D. (2004). Parliamentary Oversight of Intelligence in the UK: A Critical Evaluation in H. Born (ed.). Rogue Elephants
- Leigh, I.D. (2004). By law established? The crown, constitutional reform and the Church of England. Public law 2004(2): 266-273.
- Leigh, I.D. & Ahdar, R. (2004). Is Establishment Consistent with Religious Freedom? McGill Law Journal 49(3): 635-681.
- Leigh, I. D. (2002). Taking Rights Proportionately: Judicial Review, the Human Rights Act and Strasbourg. Public Law 265-287.
- Leigh, I.D. (2002). Bias, Necessity and the Convention. Public Law 407-414.
- Leigh, I.D. & Lustgarten, L. (1999). Making Rights Real: The Courts, Remedies and the Human Rights Act. Cambridge Law Journal 58(3): 509-545 (50% contributions).
- Leigh, I.D. (1999). The Proposed Duty of Well-Being: Comparable Powers and Duties, in Local Government Information Unit, Turning Community Leadership Into Reality: A Programme for New Powers. Journal of Local Government Law 2(4): 43-60.
- Leigh, I.D. (1999). Horizontal Rights, The Human Rights Act and Privacy: Lessons from the Commonwealth? International and Comparative Law Quarterly 48: 57-87.
- Leigh, I.D. (1999). The Proposed Duty of Community Concern. Journal of Local Government 2(4): 72-79.
- Leigh, I.D. (1997). 'Public Interest Immunity'. Parliamentary Affairs 55-70.
- Leigh, I.D. (1997). Legal Access to Security Files: the Canadian Experience. Intelligence and National Security 12:2: 126-153.
- Leigh, I.D. (1996). 'Secret Proceedings in Canada'. Osgoode Hall Law Journal 34: 113-173.
- Leigh, I.D. & Lustgarten, L. (1996). Five Volumes in Search of Accountability: The Scott Report. Modern Law Review (695-725).
- Leigh, I.D. (1996). Regulating Religious Broadcasting. Ecclesiastical Law Journal 10: 287-304.
- Leigh, I.D. (1995). Reforming Public Interest Immunity. Web Journal of Current Legal Issues 89-106.
- Leigh, I.D. (1995). The Prerogative, Legislative Power, and the Democratic Deficit: The Fire Brigades Union Case. Web Journal of Current Legal Issues
- Leigh, I.D. (1993). Matrix Churchill, Supergun and the Scott Inquiry. Public law 1993(41): 630-649.
- Leigh, I.D. (1992). Spycatcher in Strasbourg. Public Law 200-208.
- Leigh, I.D. (1992). Evidence from Phone Tapping. New Law Journal 142: 944-945, 976-977.
- Leigh, I.D. & Lustgarten, L. (1991). The Security Commission: Constitutional Achievement or Curiosity? Public law 1991: 215-232.
- Leigh, I.D. (1991). The Gulf War Deportations and the Courts. Public Law 331-339.
- Leigh, I.D. (1991). Employment, Justice and Détente: the Reform of Vetting. Modern Law Review 54: 613-642.
- Leigh, I.D. & Lustgarten, L. (1989). The Security Service Act 1989. Modern Law Review 52: 801-836.
- Leigh, I.D. (1988). Local Authorities, Party Groups and the Law. Public Law 304-313.
- Leigh, I.D. (1987). The Security Service, the Press and Courts. Public Law 12-21.
- Leigh, I.D. (1986). Criminalising the Computer. Journal of Criminal Law 50: 87-99.
- Leigh, I.D. (1986). A Tapper's Chapter? Public Law 8-18.
- Leigh, I.D. (1986). Of Racial Groups and Non-Groups. Modern Law Review 49: 235-240.
- Leigh, I.D. (1982). Discrimination: the Commission for Racial Equality. New Law Journal 132: 24-26.
- Leigh, I.D. (1977). Not to Judge but to Save? The Development of the Law of Blasphemy. Cambrian Law Review 56-73.
- Born, H., Leigh, I. & Wills, A. (2015). Making International Intelligence Cooperation Accountable. Geneva, Printing Office of the Parliament of Norway.
- European Commission for Democracy for Law (Venice Commission) (2007). Report on Democratic Oversight of the Security Services in Council of Europe States. Council of Europe.
- Born, H. & Leigh, I. D. (2005). Making Intelligence Accountable: Legal Standards and Best Practice for Oversight of Intelligence Agencies. Oslo, Publishing House of the Parliament of Norway, Oslo.