Prof Joe Elliott
|Principal of Collingwood College||+44 (0) 191 33 45011|
|Professor & Principal of Collingwood College in the School of Education||CA104||+44 (0) 191 33 45011|
Julian (Joe) Elliott joined Durham University in 2004 from the University of Sunderland where he was Acting Dean of the School of Education and Lifelong Learning. Prof. Elliott taught in mainstream and special schools prior to practising as an LEA educational psychologist.
A Chartered Psychologist and Fellow of the British Psychological Society, he is registered to engage in clinical practice as an educational psychologist by the Health Professions Council. He is an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences and a member of the REF 2014 Education Panel.
His research and teaching interests include dyslexia, achievement motivation, working memory difficulties, SEN, behaviour management, cognitive education, and psychological assessment. His research involves ongoing collaborations with partners in Europe, the United States, Asia and Australia.
The Dyslexia Debate, 2014
The Dyslexia Debate: Book Flyer (flyer)
The Dyslexia Debate: Research Briefing (Briefing)
The Dyslexia Debate: Book Launch Conferences April 22/23/24, 2014 (Conferences)
Conference: The End of Dyslexia in Higher Education? May 7, 2014 (Advert)
Joe is a member of the Physical Wellbeing in Schools project. For further information, please see http://www.move-project.org.uk/
Completed Supervisions (since 2008)
Developing Children's Cognitive Functions and Increasing Learning Effectiveness: An Intervention Using the Bright Start Cognitive Curriculum for Young Children
An application of the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence to students of English in a Taiwanese university: Reflections of an action researcher
Learning Patterns of Engineering Students in a Singapore Tertiary Education Context and the Implications for Continuing Education in the Field of Engineering
- Reading Disability/ Dyslexia
- Behaviour Problems in Children
- Cross-cultural influences in Learning and Behaviour
- Aurora Project - University of Yale
- Physical Activity and Well-being in Schools
- Project Based Learning
- Working Memory And Learning In School
- 2013: Project Based Learning(£4754.00 from Education Endowment Foundation)
- 2009: Aurora Project - University of Yale(£30458.23 from Yale University, Child Study Centre)
- 2006: WORKING MEMORY AND LEARNING IN SCHOOL(£200051.18 from ESRC)
- 2004: PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT(£14992.00 from CEA@Southwark)
- 2004: THE MEANINGS OF LEARNING, ACHIEVEMENT(£11601.00 from William T. Grant Foundation)
- 2004: THINKING SKILL TAXONOMIES(£964.00 from Learning and Skills Network Limited)
- 2003: IPRN - PROMOTING BEHAVIOUR 4 LEARNING(£63231.00 from Training and Development Agency for Schools)
- 2006: Keynote presentation: Invitation to give the Ruth Wong Memorial Lecture at the 2006 Annual Conference at the Singapore Educational Research Association
- 2005: Interview by EducationNews.org: Interviewed on work in achievement motivation by EducationNews.org, the world's leading education website.
- 2004: Sabbatical at Yale University: Invited by Professor Robert Sternberg to take up a sabbatical at Yale University in 2004. Has been an Affiliate of the Center for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies and Expertise at Yale, and latterly, Tufts, since then. Collaborating and publishing with Professor Sternberg and his team on several projects.
- 2003: IACEP: President of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology (2003-2005)
- 0000: Channel 4 documentary on Dyslexia: Following publication of book examining work with children with SEN, was invited to take a significant part in a Channel 4 documentary on dyslexia. Was intervied extensively in the national media and attracted considerable international interest. Asked to write an article on the topic for Education Canada and invited to Northern Ireland to give a seminar to the CCEA
- 0000: Editorial Boards: Member of Editorial Boards of: British Educational REsearch Journal (twice during the period) Comparative Education Educational and Child Psychology British Journal of Special Education and Support for Learning
- 0000: Presentations on work: Invited to present on work in two different research areas; achievement motivation and dynamic assessment, at many leading world universities including Yale (twice), Brown, Tennessee (Knoxville), Moscow State, Hertzen (St. Petersburg), Sydney & Geneva as well as several in the UK (Cambridge, Birmingham & Stirling).
Available for media contact about:
- Education: Many issues to do with children's development, behaviour and learning, both in relation to UK and internationally
- Psychology: Many issues to do with children's development, behaviour and learning, both in relation to UK and internationally
- Child health: Many issues to do with children's development, behaviour and learning, both in relation to UK and internationally
- Education: Childen with special educational needs, e.g. ADHD, dyslexia and conduct disorders
- Psychology: Childen with special educational needs, e.g. ADHD, dyslexia and conduct disorders
- Education: Education practices in different countries
- Education: Teacher and parent skills in relation to behaviour management
- Psychology: Teacher and parent skills in relation to behaviour management
- Elliott, J. & Place, M. (2021). Children in Difficulty: A Guide to Understanding and Helping Fourth Edition. London: Routledge.
- Armstrong, D., Hallett, F., Elliott, J. & Hallett, G. (2016). Understanding Child and Adolescent Behaviour in the Classroom: Research and Practice for Teachers. Cambridge University Press.
- Elliott, J., Nicholson, R. & Winch, C. (2016). Dyslexia: Developing the Debate. Bloomsbury Academic.
- Elliott, J. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2014). The Dyslexia Debate. Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
- Elliott, J.G. & Place, M. (2012). Children in Difficulty. London: Routledge.
- Elliott, J., Hufton, N., Illushin, L. & Willis, W. (2005). Motivation, Engagement and Educational Performance. Palgrave Press.
- Moseley, D., Baumfield, V., Elliott, J., Gregson, M., Higgins, S., Miller, J. & Newton, D.P. (2005). Frameworks for thinking: a handbook for teaching and learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- J. Elliott & M. Place (2004). Children in difficulty: a guide to understanding and helping. London: RoutledgeFalmer Press.
- J. Elliott (2003). Educational and child psychology. v. 20 (2003). British Psychological Society.
- D. Moseley, V. Baumfield, J. Elliott, S. Higgins, J. Miller, D. Newton & M. Gregson (2003). Frameworks for Thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- J. Elliott, N. Hufton, L. Illushin & W. Willis (2002). Motivation, Engagement and Educational Performance. Palgrave Press.
Chapter in book
- Elliott, J.G. (2015). Teacher Expertise. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition. Wright, J. New York: Elsevier. 56-59.
- Elliott, J.G. (2014). Teachers' craft knowledge and EBD. In The Sage Handbook of Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 2nd Edition. Garner, P., Kaufman, P. & Elliot, J.G. New York: Sage.
- Place, M. & Elliott, J.G. (2014). The Importance of the E in EBD. In The Sage Handbook of Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 2nd Edition. Garner, P., Kaufman, P. & Elliot, J.G. New York: Sage.
- Resing, W., Elliott, J.G. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2012). Dynamic teting and assessment. In Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Seel, N. Springer: New York.
- Elliott, J.G. & Resing, W. (2012). Cross-cultural factors in learning and motivation. In Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Seel, N. Springer: New York.
- Elliott, J.G. & Girgorenko, E.L. (2012). Reading disabilities. In The Routledge International Handbook on Learning. Jarvis, P. Routledge: London.
- Elliott, J. & Tymms, P. (2012). What the evidence says and what we need to investigate. In Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development. Suggate, S. & Reese, E. Routledge. 275-284.
- Smith, P. & Elliott, J.G. (2011). Social Problems in Schools. In Introduction to Developmental Psychology. Slater, A.M. & Bremner, J.G. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Gibbs, S.J. & Elliott, J.G. (2010). Dyslexia: a categorical falsehood without validity or utility. In Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities: Vol. 2 Literacy and Learning. Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.A. Bingley: Emerald. Vol. 2.
- Elliott, J.G., Grigorenko, E.L. & Resing, W. (2010). Dynamic assessment. In International Encyclopedia of Education. New York: Elsevier. 3.
- Elliott, J.G. & Gibbs, S. (2009). Does dyslexia exist? In New Philosophies of Learning. Cigman, R. & Davis, R. Oxford: Blackwell. 115-130.
- Tan, M., Aljughaiman, A., Elliott, J.G., Kornilov, S.A., Ferrando Prieto, M., Bolden, D.S., Adams-Shearer, K., Chart, H.E., Newman, T., Jarvin, L., Sternberg, R.J. & Girgorenko, E.L. (2009). Considering Language and Culture: The international translation and adaptation of the Aurora Assessment Battery. In Assessment of Abilities and Competencies in the Era of Globalization. Grigorenko, E. New York: Springer.
- Tan, M., Aljughaiman, A.M., Elliott, J.G., Kornilov, S.A., Prieto, M., Bolden, D., Adams-Shearer, K., Chart, H., Newman, T., Jarvin, L., Sternberg, R.J. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2009). Considering language, culture and cognitive abilities: The international translation and adaptation of the Aurora Assessment Battery. In Multicultural Psychoeducational Assessment. Grigorenko, E.L. (ed) New York: Springer. 443-468.
- Elliott, J. (2009). Western influences upon post-Soviet Education. In The World Yearbook of Education 2009: Childhood Studies and the Impact of Globalization: Policies and Practices at Global and Local Levels. Fleer, M., Hedegaard, M. & Tudge, J. New York: Routledge.
- Elliott, J. (2009). Motivation and behaviour in Russian schools the impact of globalisation upon the Soviet educational legacy. In The World Yearbook of Education 2009: Childhood Studies and the Impact of Globalization: Policies and Practices at Global and Local Levels. Fleer, M., Hedegaard, E. & Tudge, J. (eds) New York: Routledge. 233-253.
- Elliott, J. (2008). The Art and Heart of a Skilled Teacher: A Personal Reflection. In The Ones We Remember. Scholars Reflect on Teachers who made a Difference. Pajares, F. & Urdan, T. Information Age Publishing.
- Elliott, J.G. (2007). Ecosystemic perspectives on student behaviour: Why teachers in training need to see the bigger picture. In Advances in learning and behavioural disabilities. International perspectives. Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.A. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. 20: 57-77.
- N. Hufton & J. Elliott (2004). Motivation theory and the management of motivation to learn in school. In Understanding Pupil Behaviour in Schools: A Diversity of Approaches. J. Wearmouth, R.C. Richmond, T. Glynn & M. Berryman London: David Fulton Publishers.
- Garner, P., Kauffman, J. & Elliott, J.G. (2014). The SAGE Handbook of Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties. SAGE Publications Ltd.
- Elliott, J. & Grigorenko, E. (2008). Western Educational Theory and Practice in Diverse Contexts. London: Routledge.
- J. Bempechat & J. Elliott (2002). Learning in culture and context: Approaching the complexities of achievement motivation in student learning. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, No. 96. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
- Elliott, J. (2020). It’s Time to Be Scientific About Dyslexia. Reading Research Quarterly 55(51): 561-575.
- Gibbs, S. & Elliott, J. (2020). The dyslexia debate: life without the label. Oxford Review of Education 46(4): 487-500.
- Lopes, J., Gomes, C., Oliveira, C. & Elliott, J. (2020). Research studies on dyslexia: participant inclusion and exclusion criteria. European Journal of Special Needs Education 35(5): 587-602.
- Resing, Wilma C.M., Bakker, Merel, Elliott, Julian G. & Vogelaar, Bart (2019). Dynamic testing: Can a robot as tutor be of help in assessing children's potential for learning? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 35(4): 540-554.
- Elliott, J.G. & Place, M. (2019). Practitioner Review: School refusal: developments in conceptualisation and treatment since 2000. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 60(1): 4-15.
- Elliott, J.G., Stankov, L., Lee, J. & Beckmann, J.F. (2019). What did PISA and TIMSS ever do for us?: the potential of large scale datasets for understanding and improving educational practice. Comparative Education 55(1): 133-155.
- Elliott, J.G., Resing, W.C.M. & Beckmann, J.F. (2018). Dynamic assessment: a case of unfulfilled potential? Educational Review 70(1): 7-17.
- Resing, W.C.M., Bakker, M., Pronk, C.M.E. & Elliott, J.G. (2017). Progression paths in children’s problem solving: The influence of dynamic testing, initial variability, and working memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 153: 83-109.
- Resing, W.C.M., Touw, K.W.J., Veerbeek, J. & Elliott, J. (2017). Progress in the inductive strategy-use of children from different ethnic backgrounds: a study employing dynamic testing. Educational Psychology 37(2): 173-191.
- Vogelaar, B., Bakker, M., Elliott, J.G. & Resing, W.C.M. (2017). Dynamic testing and test anxiety amongst gifted and average-ability children. British Journal of Educational Psychology 87(1): 75-89.
- Resing, W.C.M., Bakker, M., Pronk, C.M.E. & Elliott, J. (2016). Dynamic testing and transfer: An examination of children's problem-solving strategies. Learning and Individual Differences 49: 110-119.
- Tsai, J.L., Ang, J.Y.Z., Blevins, E., Goernandt, J., Fung, H.H., Jiang, D., Elliott, J., Kolzer, A., Uchida, Y., Lee, Y.-C., Lin, Y., Zhang, X., Govindama, Y. & Haddouk, L. (2016). Leaders’ smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect. Emotion 16(2): 183-195.
- Mourgues, C., Tan, M., Hein, S., Elliott, J.G. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2016). Using creativity to predict future academic performance: An application of Aurora's five subtests for creativity. Learning and Individual Differences 51: 378-386.
- Tymms, Peter, Curtis, Sarah E., Routen, Ash C., Thomson, Katie H., Bolden, David S., Bock, Susan, Dunn, Christine E., Cooper, Ashley R., Elliott, Julian G., Moore, Helen J., Summerbell, Carolyn D., Tiffin, Paul A. & Kasim Adetayo S. (2016). Clustered randomised controlled trial of two education interventions designed to increase physical activity and well-being of secondary school students: The MOVE Project. BMJ Open 6(1): e009318.
- Elliott, J. & Resing, W.C.M. (2015). Can Intelligence Testing Inform Educational Intervention for Children with Reading Disability? Journal of Intelligence 3(4): 137-157.
- Gibbs, S. & Elliott, J.G. (2015). The differential effects of labelling: how do ‘dyslexia’ and ‘reading difficulties’ affect teachers’ beliefs. European Journal of Special Needs Education 30(3): 323-337.
- Resing, W.C., Tunteler, E. & Elliott, J.G. (2015). The effect of dynamic testing with electronic prompts and scaffolds on children's inductive reasoning: A microgenetic study. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology 14(2): 231-251.
- Elliott, J.G. (2015). The myths of dyslexia. British Psychological Society, North-East 2: 42-47.
- Elliott, J.G. (2015). The Author’s response to peer commentary. Psychology of Education Review 39(1): 35-36.
- Elliott, J.G. (2015). The Dyslexia Debate: Actions, reactions, and over-reactions. Psychology of Education Review 39(1): 6-16.
- Della Salla, S. & Elliott, J.G. (2015). I problem nella diagnosi della dislessa e il mercato che circonda la sua valutazione: un’intervista a Julian Elliott = The problems in diagnosing dyslexia and the market surrounding its assessment: An Interview with Julian Elliott. Query 23: 35-40.
- Holmes, J., Hilton, K.A., Place, M., Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J.G. & Gathercole, S.E. (2014). Children with low working memory and children with ADHD: same or different? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8: 976.
- Elliott, J.G. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2014). The end of dyslexia? The Psychologist 27(8): 576-580.
- Elliott, J.G. (2014). Lessons from abroad: Whatever happened to pedagogy? Comparative Education 50(1): 27-44.
- Elliott, J.G. (2014). Time to rethink dyslexia? Times Higher Education 2142: 34
- Elliott, J. (2014). The Dyslexia Debate: More heat than light? Learning Disabilities Australia 46(1&2): 12-13.
- Elliott, J. (2014). The Dyslexia Debate: Some key myths. Learning Disabilities Australia 46(1&2): 4-6.
- Kornilov, S.A., Tan, M., Elliott, J.G., Sternberg, R.J. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2012). Gifted Identification with Aurora: Widening the Spotlight. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 30(1): 117-133.
- Stemler, S.E., Elliott, J.G., McNeish, D., Grigorenko, E.L. & Sternberg, R.J. (2012). Examining the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Teaching Excellence rating Scale (TERS). The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 9(2): 121-138.
- Lauchlan, F., Resing, W. & Elliott, J. (2011). Computerised assessment and its contribution to educational psychology. Educational and Child Psychology 28(3).
- Resing, W.C., Steijn, W.M.P., Xenidou-Dervou, I., Stevenson, C.E. & Elliott, J. (2011). Computerized dynamic testing: A study of the potential of an approach using sensor technology. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology 10(2): 178-194.
- Resing, W. & Elliott, J.G. (2011). Dynamic testing with tangible electronics: Measuring children's change in strategy use with a series completion task. British Journal of Educational Psychology 81(4): 579-605.
- Elliott, J., Stemler, S.E., Grigorenko, E.L., Sternberg, R.J. & Hoffman, N. (2011). The socially skilled teacher and the development of tacit knowledge. British Educational Research Journal 37(1): 83-103.
- Alloway, T., Gathercole, S. & Elliott, J.G. (2010). Examining the link between working memory behaviour and academic attainment in students with ADHD. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 52(7): 632-636.
- Hall, B., Place, M.P. & Elliott, J.G. (2010). Self harm through cutting - Evidence from a sample of schools in the North of England. Pastoral Care in Education 28(1): 33-43.
- Urwick, J. & Elliott, J.G. (2010). International orthodoxy versus national realities: Inclusive schooling and the education of children with disabilities in Lesotho. Comparative Education 47(2): 137-150.
- Elliott, J., Gathercole, S.E., Alloway, T.P., Holmes, J. & Kirkwood, H. (2010). An evaluation of a classroom-based intervention to help overcome working memory difficulties and improve long-term academic achievement. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology 9(3): 227-250.
- Holmes, J., Gathercole, S.E., Place, M., Dunning, D.L., Hilton, K.L. & Elliott, J.G. (2010). Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD. Applied Cognitive Psychology 24(6): 827-836.
- Holmes, J., Gathercole, S.E., Place, M., Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J. & Hilton, K. A. (2010). The diagnostic utility of executive function assessments in the identification of ADHD in children. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 15(1): 37-43.
- Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J.G., Holmes, J. & Place, M. (2010). Exploring the link between attention and working memory in clinical and community samples. Child Neuropsychology 16: 242-254.
- Alloway, T.P., Elliott, J.G. & Holmes, J. (2010). The prevalance of ADHD-like symptoms in a community sample. Journal of Attention Disorders 14(1): 52-56.
- Beckmann, N., Beckmann, J.F. & Elliott, J.G. (2009). Self-confidence and performance goal orientation interactively predict performance in a reasoning test with accuracy feedback. Learning and Individual Differences 19(2): 277-282.
- Elliott, J. (2009). Social factors in student achievement motivation: comparison across three cultural contexts. Revue internationale d'education de Sevres
- Alloway, T., Gathercole, S., Kirkwood, H. & Elliott, J. (2009). The cognitive and behavioural characteristics of children with low working memory. Child Development 80(2): 606-621.
- Nguyen, M., Elliott, J., Terlouw, C. & Pilot, A. (2009). Neocolonialism in education: Cooperative learning, Western pedagogy in an Asian Context. Comparative Education 45(1): 109-130.
- Elliott, J.G. (2009). The nature of teacher authority and teacher expertise. Support for Learning 24(4): 197-203.
- Alloway, T., Gathercole, S., Kirkwood, H. & Elliott, J. (2009). The Working Memory Rating Scale: A classroom-based behavioural assessment of working memory. Learning and Individual Differences 19(2): 242-245.
- Alloway, T., Gathercole, S., Holmes, J., Place, M., Elliott, J. & Hilton, K. (2009). The diagnostic utility of behavioral checklists in identifying children with ADHD and children with working memory deficits. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 40(3): 353-366.
- Nguyen, P.M., Terlouw, C., Pilot, A. & Elliott, J. (2009). Cooperative learning that features a culturally appropriate pedagogy. British Educational Research Journal 35(6): 857-873.
- Resing, W., Elliott, J.G. & Higgins, S.E. (2009). Reasoning in children and adolescents. Educational and Child Psychology 26(3).
- Elliott, J.G. & Gibbs, S. (2008). Does dyslexia exist? Journal of Philosophy of Education 42(3-4): 475-491.
- Remedios, R., Kiseleva, Z. & Elliott, J.G. (2008). Goal orientations in Russian university students: from mastery to performance? Educational Psychology 28(6): 677-691.
- Elliott, J. & Tudge, J. (2007). The impact of the West on post-Soviet Russian education: change and resistance to change. Comparative Education 43: 93-112.
- Elliott, J.G. & Grigorenko, E.L. (2007). Are Western educational theories and practices truly universal? Comparative Education 43(1): 1-4.
- Van der Aalsvoort, D. & Elliott, J.G. (2007). Inclusion and the role of educational psychologists. Educational and Child Psychology 24(3): 4-7.
- Stemler, S.E. Elliott, J. Grigorenko, E.L. & Sternberg, R.L. (2006). There's more to teaching than instruction: seven strategies for dealing with the practical side of teaching. Educational Studies 32: 101-118.
- Tymms, P. & Elliott, J. (2006). Difficulties and Dilemmas in the Assessment of Special Educational Needs. Educational & Child Psychology 23(3): 25-34.
- Moseley, D., Elliott, J., Gregson, M. & Higgins, S. (2005). Thinking Skills Frameworks for Use in Education and Training. British Educational Research Journal 31(3): 367-390.
- J. Elliott, C. Lidz & M.F. Shaughnessy (2004). An Interview with Joe Elliott and Carol Lidz. North American Journal of Psychology 6(2): 349-360.
- J. Elliott (2004). Multimethod approaches in educational research. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 51: 135-149.
- N. Hufton, J. Elliott & L. Illushin (2003). Teachers' beliefs about student motivation: similarities and differences across cultures. Comparative Education 39(3): 367-389.
- Elliott, J. (2003). Dynamic Assessment in Educational Settings: Realising Potential. Educational Review 55(1): 15-32.
- Elliott, J. & Hufton, N. (2003). Achievement motivation in real contexts. BJEP Monograph Series II: Development and Motivation 2: 155-172.
- N. Hufton, J.G. Elliott & L. Illushin (2002). Achievement Motivation across Cultures: Some Puzzles and Their Implications for Future Research. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development (96): 65-85.
- J.G. Elliott & J. Bempechat (2002). The Culture and Contexts of Achievement Motivation. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development (96): 7-26.
- Hufton. N., Elliott, J. & Illushin, L. (2002). Educational Motivation and Engagement: qualitative accounts from three countries. British Educational Research Journal 28(2): 265-289.
- Elliott, J., Hufton, N., Illushin, L. & Lauchlan, F. (2001). Motivation in the junior years: international perspectives on children's attitudes, expectations and behaviour and their relationship to educational achievement. Oxford Review of Education 27(1): 37-68.
- J.G. Elliott, N. Hufton, L. Illushin & W. Willis (2001). The Kids Are Doing All Right': Differences in Parental Satisfaction, Expectation, and Attribution in St. Petersburg, Sunderland, and Kentucky. Cambridge Journal of Education 31(2): 179-204.
- Higgins, S., Baumfield, V., Newton, D. & Elliott, J. (2009). Developing effective multimedia instruction for expert learners. American Journal of Psychology 567-569.
- Elliott, J., Harker, E. & Oglethorpe, B. (2004). Lessons from study support for compulsory learning, Research Report No. 529. Department for Education and Skills. London, H.M.S.O.