Professor Petra Minnerop
Professor of International Law
Barrister (Germany), SFHEA
|Professor of International Law in the Durham Law School|
|Director of Centre for Sustainable Development Law and Policy|
|Professor of International Law in Durham CELLS (Centre for Ethics and Law in the Life Sciences)|
|Fellow in the Durham Energy Institute|
|Management Board Member in the Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience|
Professor Petra Minnerop is the Chair of the UN SDG Group of the University and leads on the University's engagement with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). She is the founder and Director of the Durham Centre for Sustainable Development Law and Policy. She previously served as the Co-Director of the Global Policy Institute.
Prior to joining Durham Law School, Petra has held academic positions at the Universities of Dundee, Munich and Göttingen, and worked as Senior Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg, and at the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law, Heidelberg. She is a member of the Bar in Germany. She is Visiting Professor at the Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia.
She studied at the Universities of Göttingen and Newcastle-upon-Tyne and holds a PhD in public international law, completed under the supervision of Professor Dr Georg Nolte (summa cum laude), awarded with the prize for the best PhD thesis of the University of Göttingen.
Petra worked for the German Foreign Office, Berlin, and for the Permanent Representative of Germany to the United Nations, New York. She has given advice to the German Federal Environmental Agency on liability in international environmental law and regularly works as an expert reviewer for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Petra serves as a member of the editorial board of the book series Global Energy Law and Policy (Hart publishing). She is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.
She is a member of the World Commission on Environmental Law (WCEL), of the Specialist Group on Climate Change and a member of Society of Legal Scholars, the Women’s Climate and Energy Law Network (WCELN), the European Society of International Law and the American Society of International Law.
Petra is the founder of the International Research Advisory Board (IRAB) that provides needs-based and research-led capacity building for partner countries in the Global South on the basis of trans-disciplinary research and academic partnerships. A link to the website is available here
Petra has published widely on liability in international environmental law, climate protection agreements, human rights law, the classification/status of states under international law and on EU citizenship. Petra has co-edited several books and edited a special thematic Volume of the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law on International Law of Development with Rüdiger Wolfrum and Frauke Lachenmann, published in 2019, with Oxford University Press. Her current interdisciplinary research project focuses on climate change law, human rights law and attribution science, in close collaboration with Friederike Otto and Rupert Stuart-Smith. She works on re-thinking and applying legal concepts in the light of attribution science.
She is also working on issues of EU citizenship and mitigating the consequences of ‘Brexit’ through international law and is one of the co-authors of the report on The Feasibility of Associate EU Citizenship for UK Citizens post-Brexit, funded by the European Parliament. She is now editing a book on EU Citizenship as institutionalised Membership with Volker Roeben and Jukka Snell, under contract with Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2021.
May 2022-March 2023: Principle Investigator, Sustainable Development Research Centre and UNFCCC engagement activities, funded by Strategic Priorities Fund (SPF), (£66,619.21)
September 2021- May 2022: Principal Investigator for Legal Support for Enhancing Ambition under the Paris Agreement, funded by the Rockefeler Foundation & Energy Transition Council (£61,644.75)
2021: Principal Investigator for ESRC IAA funded grant on Building Capacity to Enhancing Compliance with (domestic legal) Implementation of the Paris Agreement (£14,656.64).
2021: Co-Investigator, The Extractives Hub and International Research Advisory Board, Royal Society of Edinburgh (£12,613).
2019: Additional Funding from Research and Innovation Services, University of Dundee for Dundee Climate Conference
2019: Research Fellow, funded by the European Commission (£2,000) Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg
2018: Co-Investigator, Workshop on Union Citizenship in the time of Brexit, co-funded by the European Parliament and the Morgan Academy, Swansea (£10,000).
2016-2017: Co-Investigator, European Parliament, project on The Feasibility of Associate Union Citizenship post-Brexit (£15,000).
2023: Causation, Attribution and Litigation, presentation at the Centre for International Law, National University of Singapore, webinar on 'Decoding the IPCC for Lawyers' link to the recording: https://drive.google.com/file/d/18X3uHjYbrRq7cXxpaVlABNpVMOc4Ta8c/view
2023: Implications of the ECtHR's Jurisprudence for National Law: Germany, presentation at the Sabin Centre for Climate Change Law, webinar on 'The Climate Docket at the European Court of Human Rights', link to the recording: https://lnkd.in/eMSWcCNh
2022: The Global Stocktake as Process: Inputs and Outputs and Ambition, presentation for 2nd Workshop, Series of workshops co-organised with CIL/NUS and supported by the UNFCCC secretariat, see link here: https://www.durham.ac.uk/research/institutes-and-centres/csdlp/news-and-events/events/?day=07&month=10&year=2022&search=day&past=1
2022: German Climate Summit, Hamburg, ExtremWetterKongress, EinklagbareKlimaziele, Klimafolgenhaftung und Versicherungsrecht, presentation on Kausalität und Zurechnung in Klimawissenschaft und Klimarecht, see link here https://boettcher.science/ewk2022
2022: From International Law on Climate Change to Power Purchase Agreements, presentation at Lao PDR 1st Energy Modelling Workshop, with FCDO and Lao PDR government
2022: CIL (NUS) - UNFCCC Worskhop - What did COP26 mean for the Asia Pacific Region and what to expect next? Moderation (Global Stockake) link to the programme:https://cil.nus.edu.sg/event/cil-unfccc-workshop-on-what-did-cop-26-mean-for-the-asia-pacific-region-and-what-to-expect-next/
2022: General Causation, Specific Causation and Attribution in the context of Climate Change (Litigation), Lecture, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
2022: Normative Dimensions of Attribution Science and the Law, University of Graz/University of Fribourg
2022: Environmental Law Conference 2022, organised by Student Societies: DUELS (Durham), NUS Bachelor of Environmental Studies, Westminster Environmental Society, Execter Be the Change, KCL Environmental Law & Regulation Society, Cambridge Envirionmental Consulting Society
2021: Distinguished Speakers Address, ACCEL 2021, Sydney Law School https://law-events.sydney.edu.au/events/accel-2021-distinguished-speaker-address-can-climate-litigation-save-the-planet-the-role-of-climate-attribution-science see the podcast at https://www.sydney.edu.au/law/news-and-events/podcasts.html
2021: Convener of post-COP26 roundtable (final part of the preparatory Lecture Series on the Road to COP26) with Prof Oral (UN ILC, Director of CIL/NUS) and Prof Voigt (Co-Chair of the Paris Agreement Implementation and Compliance Committee, Chair of IUCN WCEL): After COP, Before COP https://www.durham.ac.uk/research/institutes-and-centres/global-policy/about-us/events/after-cop-before-cop-/
2021: Climate Risk Summit, COP26 Universities Network, Presentation on 'Attributon Sciene in the Law' during the Opening Panel on 'Risks and Attribution of Extremes'
2021: Global Climate and Health Alliance: Care4Climate Webinar, presentation on 'Health and Climate Change as Legal & Economic Issues'
2021: Presentation to Plenary during the SLS Annual Conference, on 'Law Schools in the context of climate change and pandemics'.
2021: ClimateExpo (COP 26 Universities Network Conference) ‘Defining success at COP26 / CMA 3 and wrapping up outstanding issues of the Paris Rulebook’
2021: The Paris Agreement Rulebook: Adding the Glasgow Chapter to the Katowice Climate Package’, Road to COP 26 Preparatory Lecture Series (co-organised by Nilufer Oral CIL/NUS, Petra Minnerop Durham Law School and Christina Voigt IUCN/WCEL)
2021: Presentation on 'Regional and Legal Perspectives (focusing on the role of legal and regulatory instruments', part of roundtable on 'Just and Healthy Transition', Academy of Medical Sciences and Royal Society project on climate change and health.
2021: Presentation on 'The Role of International Law on Climate Change and the function of the Meeting of Parties under the Paris Agreement', Conference on 'The Transition to Net-Zero in the North of England', Durham Energy Institute Joint Conference with North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers
2020: Guest Lecture, Chapman University Fowler School of Law, USA, 'Climate Change Causation. (Some European) Litigation and the quest for a coherent causal analysis'
2019: Presentation to School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, ‘Climate Change and the Law’
2019: Principal Investigator of conference project and convenor of the 1st interdisciplinary international Dundee Climate Conference with integrated masterclass, ‘Elements of a ‘European’, ‘International’, ‘Global’ Climate Consensus after Paris?’, funded by the Society of Legal Scholars (SLS), Presentation on ‘Elements of a European Consensus under the European Convention on Human Rights’
See the following links for media/press for the Dundee Climate Conference:
2019: Annual Conference of the Society of Legal Scholars, Preston, presentation on ‘The “European Consensus” – a safety net for climate action under the European Convention on Human Rights’
2019: Third Dundee Energy Forum, Dundee, presentation on ‘Making law in CMA decisions: benefits, risks and potential of taking the Paris Agreement forward’
2018: ISSR Forum, School of Social Sciences, Discovery Centre Dundee, Dundee, presentation on ‘International law on nationality, citizenship and continuity’
2018: Swansea University and Morgan Academy, Swansea, co-convenor (with Prof Volker Röben, Prof Jukka Snell) workshop on ‘Union citizenship in the time of Brexit’, presentation on ‘International Law and continuity of EU Citizenship’
2017: European Parliament and Article 50 task force of the European Commission, Brussels, presentation of Research Report on ‘The Feasibility of Associate Union Citizenship post-Brexit’
2005: Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg, Convenor and speaker, international conference on ‘International Environmental Law’, presentation on ‘Elements of Coherency in the Conception of International Environmental Liability Law’, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg
2003: Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg, co-convenor (with Silja Vöneky, Volker Röben, Christian Walter) and speaker, conference on ‘Terrorism as a Challenge for National and International Law: Security versus Liberty?’, presentation on ‘Legal Status of State Sponsors of Terrorism in US Law’
Climate Change Law and Policy, level 3
Public International Law
International Law on Climate Change
UN Human Rights Law
Global Human Rights Law
Law of the European Union
Legal Research Skills
English Law of Equity and Trusts
- Public International Law
- International Law on Climate Change
- International Environmental Law
- Intersection of Science and Climate Law and Policy
- Human Rights Law
- Citizenship Rights in International and EU Law
- Centre for Ethics and Law in the Life Sciences
- Durham Centre for Law and Philosophy
- 2022: Member of International Peer Review Panel, Denmark Research Fund: Appointed as member of the International Peer Review Panel of the Independent Research Fund Denmark, Social Sciences in the filed of political science and legal science
- 2022: Visiting Professor, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia:
- 2021: Article in Nature on interdisciplinary research with Fredi Otto and Rupert Stuart-Smith: Article that discusses Dr Otto's and my interdisciplinary research on climate science and law ;
- 2021: Article on climate science and law in Scientific American:
- 2021: Best science in courts, Irish Legal News: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Climate change and litigation, Rinnovabili (in Italian): Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Climate Change in the Courts, article in New Scientist:
- 2021: Climate science and law, UPI: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Climate science in courts: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Climate Science in courts, Anthropocene Magazine: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Climate science in courts, Cumhuriyet (in Turkish): Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Climate science in courts, Infobae (in Spanish): Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Climate Science in litigation, in Polish: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Coverage in BBC on climate science in courts: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Coverage of interdisciplinary work on climate litigation in CarbonBrief: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Fellow of Durham Energy Institute:
- 2021: Guardian Article on causation and attribution study: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Legal Action against emitters, DeSmog.com: Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2021: Science and law in the courts, EcoDebate (in Portuguese): Discussion of Research on Climate Science and Law
- 2020: Member and Management Board Member of Durham University’s Institute of Hazard, Risk & Resilience:
- 2020: Founding Director, International Research Advisory Board IRAB: International Research Network that provides long-term capacity building through research and academic partnerships
- 2020: Law School Academic Achievement Award: Prize for outstanding academic performance
- 2020: Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy:
- 2004: Prize for the best PhD thesis, University of Göttingen: Prize awared for PhD thesis, including financial contribution to publication as book in the Max Planck Series on Public International Law
- Minnerop, Petra (2012). Paria-Staaten im Voelkerrecht? (Paria States in International Law?). Springer.
- Minnerop, Petra (2004). Paria-Staaten im Voelkerrecht? (Pariah States in International Law?). Springer.
Chapter in book
- Minnerop, Petra (2021). Article VIII WTO Agreement, Status of the WTO. In Institutions and Dispute Settlement. Stoll, Peter T. & Hestermeyer, Holger Brill Academic Publishers.
- Minnerop, Petra (2020). The Legal Effect of the ‘Paris Rulebook’ under the Doctrine of Treaty Interpretation. In Global Energy in Transition: Towards rules-based multilateral governance of generation, markets and investment. Cameron, Peter Mu, Xiaoyi & Roeben, Volker
- Minnerop, Petra (2019). Climate Protection Agreements. In International Development Law: The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Minnerop, Petra, Wolfrum, Ruediger & Lachenmann, Frauke Oxford University Press. 205-215 (and online OPIL.ouplaw.com).
- Minnerop, Petra & Roht-Ariaza, Naomi (2019). Solidarity Rights in Development, Peace, Environment and Humanitarian Assistance. In International Law of Development. Minnerop, Petra, Wolfrum, Ruediger & Lachenmann, Frauke Oxford University Press. 3: 825-837 (and online OPIL.ouplaw.com).
- Minnerop, Petra (2018). Climate Protection Agreements. In Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, online. Minnerop, Petra, Wolfrum Ruediger & Lachenmann, Frauke Oxford University Press. e2207.
- Minnerop, Petra & Roht-Ariaza, Naomi (2018). Solidarity Rights in Development, Peace, Environment, and Humanitarian Assistance. In Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Minnerop, Petra, Wolfrum, Ruediger & Lachenmann, Frauke Oxford University Press, online. e1470.
- Minnerop, Petra (2006). Article VIII WTO Agreement. In Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization. Wolfrum, Ruediger, Stoll, Peter T. & Kaiser, Karen Kluwer: The Hague. 1.
- Minnerop, Petra & Wolfrum, Ruediger (2005). Elements of Coherency in the conception of International Environmental Liability Law. In Environmental Liability in International Law - Towards a Coherent Conception. Wolfrum, Ruediger, Langenfeld, Christine & Minnerop, Petra Erich Schmidt. 495-512.
- Minnerop, Petra (2005). Supplementary State Liability in European Law. In Environmental Liability in International Law - Towards a Coherent Conception. Wolfrum, Ruediger, Langenfeld, Christine & Minnerop, Petra Erich Schmidt, Berlin. 211-222.
- Minnerop, Petra (2005). European Community Law. In Environmental Liability in International Law - Towards a Coherent Conception. Wolfrum, Ruediger,, Langenfeld, Christine & Minnerop, Petra Erich Schmidt: Berlin. 159-210.
- Minnerop, Petra & Langenfeld, Christine (2005). Environmental Liability Provisions in International Law. In Environmental Liability in International Law - Towards a Coherent Conception. Wolfrum, Ruediger, Langenfeld, Christine & Minnerop, Petra Erich Schmidt. 159-210.
- Minnerop, Petra (2004). Legal Status of State Sponsors of Terrorism in US Law. In Walter, Christian, Roeben, Volker & Voeneky, Silja Springer: Berlin 2004. 3: 733-786.
- Minnerop, Petra, Roeben, Volker & Snell, Jukka (2021). EU Citizenship as Institutional Membership. Oxford University Press.
- Minnerop, Petra Wolfrum, Ruediger & Lachenmann, Frauke (2019). Internal Development Law. Oxford University Press.
- Oellers-Frahm, Karin, Minnerop, Petra, Schorkopf, Frank & Walter, Christian (2008). World Court Digest 2001-2005. Kluwer, Berlin.
- Wolfrum, Ruediger, Langenfeld, Christine & Minnerop, Petra (2005). Environmental Liability in International Law - Towards a Coherent Conception?. Erich Schmidt: Berlin 2005.
- Otto, Friederike E. L., Minnerop, Petra, Raju, Emmanuel, Harrington, Luke J., Stuart‐Smith, Rupert F., Boyd, Emily, James, Rachel, Jones, Richard G. & Lauta, Kristian C. (2023). Law, justice and the role of courts in changing the social superstructure narrative in climate litigation: A Rejoinder to Benoit Mayer. Global Policy
- Minnerop, Petra (2023). European Consensus as Integrative Doctrine of Treaty Interpretation: Joining Climate Science and International Law under the European Convention on Human Rights. Berkeley Journal of International Law 40(2): 207-262.
- Minnerop, Petra (2023). Intergenerational Preparedness: Climate Change, Community Interest Obligations, and the Environmental Rule of Law. Global Policy
- Otto, Friederike E L, Minnerop, Petra, Raju, Emmanuel, Harrington, Luke J, Stuart-Smith, Rupert F, Boyd, Emily, James, Rachel, Jones, Richard & Lauta, Kristian C (2022). Causality and the fate of climate litigation: The Role of the social Superstructure Narrative. Global Policy 13(5): 736-750.
- Minnerop, Petra (2022). The Advance Interference-Like Effect of Climate Targets: Fundamental Rights, Intergenerational Equity and the German Federal Constitutional Court. Journal of Environmental Law 34(1): 135-162.
- Stuart-Smith, Rupert F., Otto, Friederike E.L., Saad, Aisha I., Lisi, Gaia, Minnerop, Petra, Cedervall, Kristian, van Zwieten, Kristin & Wetzer, Thom (2021). Filling the evidentiary gap in climate litigation. Nature Climate Change 11: 651-655.
- Minnerop, Petra & Rostgaard, Ida (2021). In Search of a Fair Share: Article 112 Norwegian Constitution, International Law and an Emerging Inter-Jurisdictional Discourse in Climate Litigation. Fordham International Law Journal 44(4): 847-922.
- Minnerop, Petra (2020). The First German Climate Case. Environmental Law Review 22: 215-226.
- Minnerop, Petra & Otto, Friederike EL (2020). Climate Change and Causation: Joining Law and Climate Science on the basis of Formal Logic. Buffalo Environmental Law Journal 27(1): 2, 49-86.
- Minnerop, Petra (2019). Integrating the ‘duty of care’ under the European Convention on Human Rights and the science and law of climate change: the decision of the Hague Court of Appeal in the Urgenda case. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law 37: 450-474.
- Minnerop, Petra & Roeben, Volker (2018). Continuity as the rule, not the exception: How the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties protects against retroactivity of ‘Brexit’. European Human Rights Law Review 5: 474-489.
- Roeben, Volker, Minnerop, Petra, Snell, Jukka & Telles, Pedro (2018). Revisiting Union Citizenship from a Fundamental Rights perspective in the time of Brexit. European Human Rights Law Review 5: 450-473.
- Minnerop, Petra (2018). Taking the Paris Agreement Forward: Continuous Strategic Decision-making on Climate Action by the Meeting of the Parties. Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online 21 (2018)(1): 124-167.
- Minnerop, Petra (2018). Taking the Paris Agreement forward: Continuous strategic decision-making on Climate Action by the Meeting of the Parties. Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 21: 124-167.
- Minnerop, Petra (2004). German Constitutional Law Cases. European Public Law 10: 221-236.
- Minnerop, Petra & Schorkopf, Frank (2004). The German University Reform. The Annual of German & European Law 1.
- Minnerop, Petra (2003). The Classification of States and the Creation of Status within the International Community. Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 7: 79-182.
- Minnerop, Petra (2002). Rogue States - States Sponsoring Terrorism. German Law Journal
- Minnerop, Petra (2001). German Constitutional Law Cases (2001). European Public Law 7: 549-563.
- Stuart-Smith, Rupert, Saad, Aisha, Otto, Friederike, Lisil, Gaia, Lauta, Kristian, Minnerop, Petra & Wetzer, Thom (2021). Attribution science and litigation: facilitating effective legal arguments and strategies to manage climate change damages. Oxford, Oxford Sustainable Law Programme, Environmental Change Institute, & Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment.
- Roeben, Volker, Snell, Jukka, Minnerop, Petra, Telles, Pedro & Bush, Keith (2017). The Feasibility of Associate EU Citizenship for UK Citizens Post-Brexit.