|Professor in the Department of Geography|
|Professor of Economy and Culture||316||+44 (0) 191 33 41852|
|Professor of Politics-State-Space||316||+44 (0) 191 33 41852|
|Professor of Urban Worlds||316||+44 (0) 191 33 41852|
|Fellow of Wolfson Research Institute for Health and Wellbeing|
Ray Hudson is an Emeritus Professor in the Department of Geography. He joined the Department in 1972 (having been awarded a BA and PhD at Bristol University) and became a Professor in 1990. Ray was Chairman of the Department from 1992 to 1997 and has held, various senior positions in the University, including serving as Director of the interdisciplinary Wolfson Research Institute, 2003 - 2007 and then as Pro-Vice Chancellor and Deputy Vice Chancellor. He was Acting Vice Chancellor, 2014 - 2015. He has served on all of the University's major committees and on a variety of local and regional economic and social development and voluntary organisations.
He has served as a Vice President and Chair of the Research Division of the Royal Geographical Society (1999 - 2004), as Chair of the Conference of Heads of Geography in UK HEIs (1995 - 1999) and on various ESRC and HEFCE committees and boards, including ESRC's Training and Development Board and HEFCE's Strategic Advisory Committee for Enterprise and Skills. Until 2013, he was a co-director of FUSE (the North East Centre of Excellence of Translational Research in in Public Health) and a director of nomis (the National On-line Manpower Information System). For its first decade he chaired the International Advisory Board of WISERD (the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data And Methods).
A political-economic geographer, his research has focussed upon economic geographies, processes of combined and uneven development and issues of territorial development. Much of his empirical reseach has focussed on 'old' industrial regions. He was one of a small number of geographers in the early 1970s who began to explore political economy approaches as an alternative to the then-dominant neoclassical location theories and statiistical modelling approaches. His more recent research has included work on the social economy, on relations betweeen legal and illegal economies, and on the relationships between economy and environment and processes of material transformation and value creation. His publications include Wrecking a Region (Pion, 1989), Production, Places and Environment (Pearson, 2000), Digging up Trouble: The Environment, Protest and Opencast Coal Mining (with Huw Beynon and Andrew Cox, Rivers Oram, 2000), Producing Places (Guilford, 2001), Placing the Social Economy (with Ash Amin and Angus Cameron, Routledge, 2002), Economic Geographies: Circuits, Flows and Spaces, Sage, 2005), Approaches to Economic Geography: Towards a Geographical Political Economy, (Routledge, 2016), Co-Produced Economies: Capital, Collaboration, Competition (Routledge, 2019) and The Shadow of the Mine: Coal and the Decline of Industrial Britain (with Huw Beynon (Verso, 2021, forthcoming). He is currently working on a long-period political economy of north east England.
His research has been recognised in a number of ways, including: a DLitt from Durham, a DSc from Bristol and an honorary DSc from Roskilde University. He received the Edward Heath Award from the Royal Geographical Society and was awarded its Victoria Medal in recognition of sustained excelllence in research. He was also awarded the Sir Peter Hall Award by the Regional Studies Association for his contribution to the field of regional studies .He has been elected to the Fellowship of the Academy of the Social Sciences, to the Fellowship of the British Academy and to the European Academy (Academia Europaea). He is also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and of the Regional Studies Association.
His research has involved working with and advising trades unions, community organisations and local, regional and national goverment organisations and has led to invitations to act as Special Adviser to the House of Commons Select Committee on Coalfields Regeneration and as an Expert Witness to the National Audit Office in its investigations into coalfield regeneration policies. More recently his research has informed and influenced policy making at the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
- Political economies of uneven and combined development
- Economic Geographies
- Economic & social regeneration in 'old' industrial regions
- Relationships between capitalist economies and the earth system
- Relationships berween legal and illegal economies and spaces
- Durham - CMI Knowledge Exchange Laboratory, The
- Health Inequalities in an Age of Austerity, Leverhulme Trust Research Leadership Grant, £1 million (2013-2018)
- Waste of the World
- 2013: RF150283: Illicit economies and the spaces of circulation, ESRC, 2013-08-01 - 2015-04-30
- 2013: Addition to ONS 2011 Census dissemination(£154100.00 from Office for National Statistics)
- 2012: Office for National Statistics Census 2011 Dissemination(£237314.00 from Office for National Statistics)
- 2011: Nomis contract extension 2011-2013(£826044.00 from Office for National Statistics)
- 2010: The impact of demographic change in the functional economies of the North of England(£18952.77 from One NorthEast)
- 2007: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL(£11756.00 from The British Academy)
- 2006: WASTE OF THE WORLD(£1129357.00 from ESRC)
- 2005: KTP - REDCAR & CLEVELAND PCT(£163066.00 from Redcar & Cleveland PCT)
- 2004: DURHAM-CMI KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE LABORATORY(£182986.00 from Cambridge-MIT Institute Ltd)
- 2003: COPING WITH THE CONSEQUENCES(£6000.00 from The Nuffield Foundation)
- 2003: SOCIAL ECONOMY AND REGIONAL REGENERATION(£3850.00 from The British Academy)
- 2001: ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT STUDY-CORUS STEEL TASK FORCE(£42475.00 from Redcar & Cleveland Borough Council)
- 1999: ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN FELLOWSHIP-DR BANKS(£20000.00 from The Royal Academy of Engineering)
- 1999: REGIONAL ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE(£13931.00 from ESRC)
- 1998: Rural Areas Learning(£59826.00 from Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust)
- 1997: COAL DISTRICTS IN TRANSFORMATION(£10839.00 from ESRC)
- 1997: LOCIN - COMBAT SOCIAL EXCLUSION(£84558.00 from )
- 1993: EUROPEAN STUDIES(£149439.06 from Longman Group UK Ltd)
- -0001: TMR 20 LUNDEQUIST(£18776.00 from )
Available for media contact about:
- Economics: regional economic development
- Economics: industrial change
- Economics: Europe/European Union
- Employment: practice in employment law
- Economics & management: industrial change
- Economics & management: regional economic development
- Economics & management: political & economic restructuring in Europe
- Landscape & buildings: mining for coal & metals
- Landscape & buildings: quarrying
- Landscape & buildings: conservation of geological sites, etc.
- Europe: Business, economy & development: industrial change
- Europe: Business, economy & development: regional development
- Europe: Business, economy & development: environmental issues and sustainable development
- Modern History: Europe: industrial change
- Modern History: Europe: regional and urban development and regeneration
- Social Policy: Employment & development issues: industrial change and its social consequences
- Social Policy: Employment & development issues: regional and urban development and regeneration
- Regional Economy: industrial change and its social effects
- Regional Economy: regional development
- Regional Economy: regional economy
- People: Civilisation & land use: industrial change
- People: Civilisation & land use: regional and urban development and regeneration
- Beynon, H. & Hudson, R. (2021). The Shadow of the Mine. Coal and the End of Industrial Britain. Verso.
- Hudson, R. (2019). Co-produced Economies: Capital, Collaboration, Competition. Routledge.
- Hudson, R. (2016). Approaches to Economic Geography: Towards a Geographical Political Economy. Routledge.
- Hudson, R. (2005). Economic Geographies: Circuits, Flows and Spaces. Sage.
- Amin, A., Cameron, A & Hudson, R. (2002). Placing the Social Economy. Oxford.: Routledge.
- Hudson, R. (2001). Producing Places. New York.: Guilford Press.
- Hudson, R. (2000). Production, Places and Environment: Changing Perspectives in Economic Geography. Longman.
- Hudson, R & Williams, A M (2000). Divided Britain. Mallard Editions.
- Hudson, R., Beynon, H. & Cox, A. (2000). Digging up Trouble: Environment, Protest and Opencast Coal Mining. Rivers Oram.
- Bennett, K, Beynon, H & Hudson, R (2000). Coalfields Regeneration: Dealing with the Consequences of Industrial Decline. Poilicy Press.
- Beynon, H, Hudson, R & Sadler, D (1994). A Place Called Teesside: A Locality in a Global Economy. Edinburgh University Press.
- Beynon, H, Hudson, R & Sadler, D (1991). A Tale of Two Industries: The Contraction of Coal and Steel in North East England. Open University Press.
- Hudson, R & Sadler, D (1989). The International Steel Industry: Restructuring, state policies and localities. Routledge.
- Hudson, R. (1989). Wrecking a Region: State Policies, Party Politics and Regional Change in North East England. Pion.
- Rhind, D.W. & Hudson, R. (1980). Land Use. Methuen.
- Pocock, D & Hudson, R (1978). Images of the Urban Environment. Macmillan.
Chapter in book
- Hudson, R. & Hall, T. (2021). The Economic Geographies of Transnational Organised Crime. In Handbook of Organised Crime. Allum, F. Wiley.
- Hudson, R. (2019). Economic geographies of the (il)legal and the (il)licit. In A Research Agenda in Global Crime. Hall, T. & Scalia, V. Edward Elgar.
- Beynon, H. & Hudson, R. (2018). The road to Brexit on the British coalfields. In Doreen Massey: Critical Dialogues. Traub-Werner, Marion, Peck, Jamie, Lave, Rebecca & Christophers, Brett Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing. 161-172.
- Hudson, R. (2017). Industrial Conversion. In International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment and Technology. John Wiley. 1.
- Hudson, R. (2015). Does illegality enable or undermine the sustainability of the globalising economy? In Routledge International Handbook of Sustainable Development. Redclift, M. & Springett, D. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. 41-54.
- Hudson, R. (2015). Uneven development, socio-spatial polarisation and political responses. In Understanding Geographies of Polarisation and Peripheralisation: Perspectives from Central and Eastern Europe and Beyond. Lang, T., Henn, S., Sgibnev, W. & Ehrlich, K. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 25-39.
- Hudson, R. & Robinson, F. (2013). University engagement with socially excluded communities: towards 'the engaged university'. In University Engagement With Socially Excluded Communities. Benneworth, P. Springer. XII: 189-198.
- Hudson, R. (2013). Conclusion: Divided kingdom? Health, the regions and austerity economics. In 'The NHS at 65 is facing a triple-pinch of recession, austerity and demographic change.'. Wood, Claudia DEMOS. 65-72.
- Lane, C. & Wood, G. (2012). Regions, varieties of capitalism and the legacies of neoliberalism. Capitalist Diversity and Diversity within Capitalism. In Routledge. 189-208.
- Hudson, R. (2011). Spatial circuits of value. In Handbook of Local and Regional Development. Pike, A., Rodriguez-Pose, A. & Tomaney, J. Routledge. 109-118.
- Hudson, R. (2011). Geographies of economic decline. In A Compendium of Economic Geography. Lee, R., Leyshon, A., McDowell, L. & Sunley, P. Sage. 261-272.
- Hudson, R. & Fischbacher-Smith, D. (2010). Exporting Pandora's Box - Exploitation, risk communication and public health problems associated with the export of hazard. In Risk Communication and Public Health, OUP. Bennett, P., Calman, K., Curtis, S. & Fischbacher-Smith, D. Oxford University Press. 245-60.
- Hudson, R. (2010). The changing geographies of manufacturing and work: made in the UK? In The Economic Geography of the UK. Coe, N. & Jones, A. Sage. 139-152.
- Hudson, R. (2009). Regional Development: Uneven Regional Development. In International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography. Thrift, Nigel & Kitchin, Rob Amsterdam: Elsevier. 12: 18-23.
- Hudson, R. (2009). The costs of globalization: Producing new forms of risk to health and well-being. In Palgrave Macmillan. 11: 13-29.
- Hudson, R. (2009). Economic Geography: Fordism. In International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography. Thrift, N. & Kitchin, R. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 4: 226-231.
- Hudson, R. (2008). The Knowledge-based Economy, Public Policy and Regional Development: Lessons from the North East of England. In Geophilia o sentir os sentidos da Geografia: Homenagem a Jorge Gaspar. Lisboa.: CEG. 475-488.
- Hudson, R. (2006). The production of institutional complemenrarity: the case of North East England. In Institutions, Production and Working Life. Wood, G. & James, P. Oxford University Press. 104-122.
- Hudson, R. (2006). The New Economic Geography? In Past, Present and Future of Economic Geography. Lawton-Smith, H. & Bagchi-Sen, S. Routledge. 47-55.
- Hudson, R. (2006). Firms as political actors in processes of capital accumulation and regional development. In Understanding the Firm: Spatial and Organizational dimensions. Taylor, M. & Oinas, P. Oxford Oxford University Press. 169-188.
- Hudson, R. (2003). Geographers and the Regional Problem. In A Century of British Geography, British Association for the Advancement of Science. Johnston, R. & Williams, M. 18: 583-602.
- Hudson, R. (2003). Global production systems and European integration. In Global Connections. Peck, J. & Yeung, H. Sage. 216-230.
- Amin, A., Cameron, A. & Hudson, R. (2003). The alterity of the social economy. In Alternative Economic Spaces. Leyshon, A., Lee, R. & Williams, C. Sage. 27-54.
- Hudson, R. (2001). Western Europe Studies: Geography. In International Encyclopaedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Smelser, N. & Bates, P. Pergamon. 16: 473-479.
- Hudson, R. & Williams, A. (2001). Re-shaping Europe: the Challenge of New Divisions with a Homogenised Political-Economic Space. In Re-thinking European Welfare. Fink, J., Lewis, G. & Clarke, J. Sage.
- Hudson, R. (2000). Globalization, National State Policies and Regional differentiation: the Case of the UK. In The Dialectics of Globalization. Vellinga, M. Westview. 235-256.
- Hudson, R. (2000). Restructurer la region, restructurer l'Etat: le cas de l'Angleterre du Nord Est. In La Richesse de Regions: La Nouvelle Geographie Socio-Economique. Benko, G. & Lipietz, A. Presses Universitaire de France. 391-422.
- Hudson, R. (1999). The New Economy of the New Europe: Eradicating Divisions or Creating New Forms of Uneven Development. In Divided Europe: Society and Territory. Hudson, R. & Williams, A. Sage. 29-62.
- Hudson, R. & Williams, A. (1999). Re-shaping Europe: the Challenge of New Divisions within a Homogenised Political-Economic Space. In Divided Europe: Society and Territory. Hudson, R. & Williams, A. Sage. 1-28.
- Hudson, R. (2008), Material matters and the search for resilience: Re-thinking and urban development strategies in the context of global environmental change, International Conference, Studying, Modelling and Sense Making of Planet Earth. University of Aegean, Lesvos., University of Aegean, Lesvos, 1-34.
- Chiodelli, F., Hall, T. & Hudson, R. (2017). The illicit and illegal in regional and urban governance and development: corrupt places. Regions and cities. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
- Hudson, R & Williams, A M (1999). Divided Europe: Society and Territory. Sage.
- Hudson, R. & Schamp, E.W. (1995). Towards a New Map of Automobile Manufacturing in Europe? New Production Concepts and Spatial Restructuring. Springer.
- Hudson, R. & Lewis, J. (1985). Uneven Development in Southern Europe. Methuen.
- Anderson, J, Hudson, R & Duncan, S (1983). Redundant Spaces in Cities and Regions? Studies in Industrial Decline and Social Change. Institute of British Geographers Special Publications. Academic Press.
- Hudson, R. & Lewis, J. (1982). Regional Planning in Europe. Pion.
- Carney, J., Hudson, R. & Lewis, J. (1980). Regions in Crisis: New Perspectives in European Regional Theory. Croom Helm.
- Hudson, R. (2021). Capitalism, Contradiction, Crises: Pushing back the limits to capital or breaching the capacity of the planetary ecosystem? Area Development and Policy
- Hudson, R. (2021). Life post-Brexit in the Divided Realm. European Urban and Regional Studies 096977642096563.
- Hudson, R. (2020). The illegal, the illicit and new geographies of uneven development. Territory, Politics, Governance 8(2): 161-176.
- Hudson, R. (2017). Facing Forwards, Looking Backwards: Coming to Terms with Continuing Uneven Development in Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies 24(2): 138-141.
- Hudson, R. (2016). Rising powers and the drivers of uneven global development. Area Development and Policy 1(3): 279-294.
- Hudson, R. (2014). Thinking through the relationships between legal and illegal activities and economies: Spaces, flows and pathways. Journal of Economic Geography 14(4): 775-795.
- Hadjimichalis, C. & Hudson, R. (2014). Contemporary crisis across Europe and the crisis of regional development theories. Regional Studies 48(1): 208-218.
- Hudson, R. (2013). Thatcherism and its geographical legacies: The new map of socio-spatial inequality in the Divided Kingdom. The Geographical Journal 179(4): 377-381.
- Rees, P. & Hudson, R. (2013). The Impacts of Demographic Change on the Functional Economies of the North of England. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy 6(2): 85.
- Hudson, R. (2012). Critical Political Economy and Material Transformation. New Political Economy 17(4): 373-397.
- Hudson, R. & Swanton, D. (2012). Global Shifts in contemporary times: the changing trajectories of steel towns in China, Germany and the United Kingdom. European Urban and Regional Studies 19(1): 6.
- Gregson, N., Crang, M., Ahamed, F., Akter, N., Ferdous, R., Foisal, S. & Hudson, R. (2012). Territorial agglomeration and industrial symbiosis: Sitakunda-Bhatiary, Bangladesh, as a secondary processing complex. Economic Geography 88(1): 37-58.
- Hudson, R. (2011). From knowledge based economy … to knowledge based economy? Reflections on changes in the economy and development policies in the North East of England. Regional Studies 45(7): 997-1012.
- Hudson, R. (2011). Regions Con-Dem’d? Geography 44-49.
- Hudson, R (2010). Multiplicant els riscs per a la salut I el benestar: els costos inadmissibles de la globalització/Multiplying risks to Health and Wellbeing: the unacknowledged costs of Globalisation. Treballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia 70: 101-27.
- Hudson, R. (2009). Life on the edge: navigating the competitive tensions between the 'social' and the 'economic' in the social economy and in its relations to the mainstream. Journal of Economic Geography 9(4): 493-510
- Hudson, R. (2009). Resilient regions in an uncertain world: wishful thinking or practical reality. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 1-15.
- Hudson, R. (2008). Cultural political economy meets global production networks: a productive meeting? Journal of Economic Geography 8(3): 421-440.
- Watson, M., Bulkeley, H. & Hudson, R. (2008). Unpicking environmental policy integration with tales from waste management. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 26(3): 481-498.
- Hudson, R. (2007). Regions and Regional Uneven Development Forever? Some Reflective Comments upon Theory and Practice. Regional Studies 41(9): 1149-1160.
- Hudson, R. (2007). Region and place: rethinking regional development in the context of global environmental change. Progress in Human Geography 31(6): 827-836.
- Hadjimichalis, C. & Hudson, R. (2007). Rethinking Local and Regional Development: Implications for Radical Political Development in Europe. European urban and Regional Studies 14(2): 99-113.
- Hudson, R. & Hadjimichalis, C. (2006). Networks, Regional Development and Democratic Control. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30: 858-872.
- Hudson, R. (2006). Regional devolution and regional economic success: myths and illusions about power. Geografiska Annaler B 88(2): 159-171.
- Hudson, R. (2006). On what's right and keeping left: or Why Geography still needs Marxian political economy. Antipode 38(2): 374-395.
- Hudson, R. (2005). Rethinking change in old industrial regions: reflecting on the experiences of North East England. Environment and Planning A 37(4): 581-596.
- Hudson, R. (2005). Region and Place: Devolved Regional Government and Regional Economic Success? Progress in Human Geography 29(5): 618-625.
- Hudson, R. (2005). Towards Sustainable Economic Practices, Flows and Spaces: or is the Necessary Impossible and the Impossible Necessary? Sustainable Development 13(4): 239-252.
- Bulkeley, H., Watson, M., Hudson, R. & Weaver, P. (2005). Governing Municipal Waste: Towards a New Analytical Framework. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 7(1): 1-23.
- Hudson, R. & Hadjimichalis, C. (2004). Reti, sviluppo regionale e controllo democratico. Meridiana: Rivista di Storia e Scienze Sociale 49: 75-98.
- Hudson, R. (2004). Conceptualizing economies and their geographies: spaces, flows and circuits. Progress in Human Geography 28(4): 447-471.
- Hudson, R. (2004). Thinking through the geographies of the New Europe in the New Millennium: dialectics of circuits, flows and spaces. European Urban and Regional Studies 11: 99-102.
- Hudson, R. (2004). Reflecting on The Limits to Capital, twenty years on. Antipode 36: 414-419.
- Hadjimichalis, C. & Hudson, R. (2003). Geographical imaginations, post-modern imperialism and the project of European political integration. Soundings 23: 37-53.
- Hudson, R. (2003). The changing geography of the British coal industry: nationalization, privatisation and the political economy of energy supply, 1947-97. Transations of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy: Section A- Mining Technology 111: 180-187.
- Hudson, R. (2003). Fuzzy concepts and sloppy thinking: Reflections on recent developments in critical regional studies. Regional Studies 37(6-7): 741-746.
- Hudson, R. (2003). European integration: new forms of uneven development and the end of territorially distinctive capitalism in Europe? European Urban and Regional Studies 10(1): 49-67.
- Hudson, R. (2003). European integration and new forms of uneven development - But not the end of territorially distinctive capitalisms in Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies 10(1): 49-67.
- Hudson, R. (2002). Commodity chains and flows of value: exploring the link between corporate strategies, governance processes and regional economic development in Europe. Desinvestimento e Impactos Economicos, Sociais e territoriais
- Smith, A., Rainnie, A., Dunford, M., Hardy, J., Hudson, R. & Sadler, D. (2002). Networks of value, commodities and regions: reworking divisions of labour in macro-regional economies. Progress in Human Geography 26(1): 41-63.
- Hudson, R. (2002). Changing industrial production systems and regional development in the New Europe. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 27(3): 262-281.
- Hudson, R. (2002). Re-drawing the line between the employed and unemployed: new forms of work, unemployed and public policies in Europe. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 93(3): 316-315.
- Hudson, R. (2002). The Globalization of Business. British Journal of Management 13( 4): 362-366.
- Hudson, R. (2002). The changing geography of the British coal industry: nationalization, privatization and the political economy of energy supply 1947-97. Mining Technology 111(3): 180-186.
- Hudson, R. (2002). The Oxford handbook of economic geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 27(1): 123-127.
- Cuthbertson, M., Hudson, R. & McKeever, L. (2001). r center.cade - The resource centre for access to data on Europe. Creating a resource on Europe for UK academic researchers. European Urban and Regional Studies 8(4): 371-382.
- Hudson, R. (2000). One Europe or Many? Reflections on becoming European. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 25(4): 409-426.
- Hudson, R. (1999). 'The learning economy, the learning firm and the learning region': a sympathetic critique of the limits to learning. European Urban and Regional Studies 6(1): 59-72.
- Amin, A., Cameron, A. & Hudson, R. (1999). Welfare at work? The potential of the UK social economy. Environment and Planning A 31: 2033-2051.
- Hudson, R. & Lei, S. (1999). Towards sustainable mining cities: what policies should be sought and experiences could be learnt for China? The Journal of Chinese Geography 9(3): 207-226.
- Hudson, R. (Published). The Costs of Globalisation: Producing New Forms of Risk to Health and Well-Being. Journal of Risk Management 11: 13-29.
- Hudson, R., Buckner, L., Cannon, T., Harding, A., Rees, P. & Kurowska, K. (2013). The impacts of demographic change on the functional; economies of the North of England. N8 and Northern Way, Manchester (iv + 35)
- Hudson, R. & Townsend, A.R. (2005). Coalfield regeneration, 1981-2003: Employment and Travel to work, Parts I and II. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
- Hudson, R., Miles, N., Robinson, J. F. & Tully, J. (2004). Social Capital and Economic Development in North East England: Promoting Economic and Social Inclusion.
- Hudson, R. & Townsend, A. (2003). The Steel Industry in the Tees Valley; the supply chain in the Tees Valley and its vulnerability to further reductions in the Steel Industry.
- Hudson, R. & Townsend, A. (2003). Updating Coalfield Areas.