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Professor Richard Scholar


MA, DPhil Oxon

AffiliationRoom numberTelephone
Professor in the School of Modern Languages and Cultures +44 (0) 191 33 43444
Member of the Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies  


I was appointed Professor of French in January 2019. I moved to Durham to take up the Chair created, along with two Associate Professorships in French, by way of succession to Lucille Cairns and John O’Brien. I had spent the previous thirteen years at Oxford, as Fellow and Tutor in French at Oriel College, and as (first) University Lecturer in French and (latterly) Professor of French and Comparative Literature. 

While at Oxford, I served as the University’s Humanities Division Knowledge Exchange and Public Engagement Lead, developing partnerships with non-academic institutions in and beyond the UK. I also served a term as Oriel’s Senior Tutor. 

I am a former Editor of Early Modern French Studies, the journal of the UK Society for Early Modern French Studies, on whose Executive Committee I sit. I am a Member of the Jury du Prix XVIIe siècle (on behalf of La Société d’Étude du XVIIe siècle, France) and of the Editorial Board for the French Renaissance Texts in Translation (FRTT) series published by AMS Press (New York). I am a Literary Theory Consultant for the Oxford English Dictionary.

I am the recipient of a Philip Leverhulme Prize and a Chevalier of the Ordre des Palmes Académiques. I have held visiting research positions at national and international universities. 

Research Interests

My research interests lie in French language and literature, broadly conceived, with a particular emphasis on early modern studies, comparative literature, translation and transcultural studies, word histories, and questions of critical method. 

I am the author of The Je-Ne-Sais-Quoi in Early Modern Europe: Encounters with a Certain Something (2005) and Montaigne and the Art of Free-Thinking (2010; 2017). Both books have been translated into French. Other publications include Thinking with Shakespeare: Comparative and Interdisciplinary Essays (2007), Fiction and the Frontiers of Knowledge in Europe, 15001800 (2010), and Caribbean Globalizations, 1492 to the Present Day (2015). 

Current Research

At the heart of my current research are two projects. 

The first examines the uses of untranslated French words in English and asks what these words reveal about the fertile but fraught relationship that England and France have long shared and that now entangles English- and French-speaking cultures all over the world. Émigrés: French Words That Turned English is forthcoming from Princeton University Press in August 2020. 

The second project brings into dialogue translations and reworkings of Thomas More’s Utopia from across the early modern world. The book arising from the project, The Inventions of Utopia, is a comparative study of the utopian tradition that emerged in the century following publication of Thomas More’s Utopia in Latin in 1516. I show how the style of Utopia established More’s text as a laboratory of ongoing literary invention.

Both of these pieces of individual research are related to the ongoing work of broader collaborative projects in which I am involved. I co-direct an international research group, Early Modern Keywords, whose aim is to compile a new vocabulary of early modern European culture and society in a multilingual and interdisciplinary perspective. I am also an active member of Storming Utopia. The project has so far seen an intergenerational group performing an ‘tempestuous experiment in practical utopianism’ in several ways: making a new piece of theatre that draws on More’s Utopia, Shakespeare’s Tempest, and Montaigne’s essay ‘On Cannibals’; performing the show in Oxford and Venice; and running events enabling members of the public to engage in the questions of research and creative practice that lie at the heart of the project. I previously directed a major collaborative project exploring evolutions of Caribbean cultural identity in the long age of globalization.

International Collaborations

Co-director of Early Modern Keywords with Ita Mac Carthy (Durham). This international research project aims to do for early European modernity what Raymond Williams did for British modernity in Keywords (1976). Our work, unlike his, involves taking a multilingual approach and reflecting on questions of method. The project thus offers a unique interdisciplinary interface for language-based research in intellectual, cultural, and social history, the history of art, linguistic and literary studies, and politics. Having published Renaissance Keywords, ed. Ita Mac Carthy (Legenda, 2013), we have held meetings at the University of Oxford (2014) and the Fondazione Cini in Venice (2016 and 2018).

Member of CEIPPREM (Centre d’études interdisciplinaires sur Pascal, Port-Royal, et l’Europe moderne) led by Alain Cantillon (Université de Paris-III Sorbonne Nouvelle) (since 2018).

Founder of The Oxford-Venice Initiative, a series of collaborations between the Fondazione Giorgio Cini (Venice) and the University of Oxford’s Humanities Division (201418).

Member of the ANR-funded AGÔN research project led by Alexis Tadié (Université de Paris-IV Sorbonne) and Prof. Alain Viala (University of Oxford and Université de Paris-III Sorbonne Nouvelle), investigating cases, quarrels, and controversies in early modern France and England (201015). 

Visiting Fellow, Theorizing Early Modern Studies Collaborative, University of Minnesota (2007). 

Member of the interdisciplinary international early modern research group Les Frontières de la modernité (20037).

Postgraduate Supervision

I have supervised PhD students working on a range of topics, including French studies, comparative literature, word histories, and intellectual history. I would welcome enquiries from students who wish to pursue PhDs in these fields and all others related to my research interests.

Research interests

  • French language and literature
  • Early modern studies
  • Comparative literature
  • Translation and transcultural studies
  • Word histories
  • Critical methodologies


Authored book

  • Scholar, Richard (2020). Émigrés: French Words That Turned English. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Scholar, Richard (2010). Montaigne and the Art of Free-Thinking. Oxford: Peter Lang Oxford.
  • Scholar, Richard (2005). The 'Je-Ne-Sais-Quoi' in Early Modern Europe: Encounters with a Certain Something. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in book

  • Scholar, Richard (2020). Rabelais et l’archipel des utopies. In Actes du colloque international ‘Inextinguible Rabelais’. Huchon, Mireille et al Editions Classiques Garnier.
  • Scholar, Richard (2020). Translating Utopia: The Case of Early Modern France. In The Oxford Handbook of Thomas More’s Utopia. Shrank, Cathy & Withington, Phil Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Scholar, Richard (2020). Montaigne’s Essais, Shakespeare’s Trials, and other Experiments of the Moment. In Shakespeare and Montaigne. Engle, Lars, Gray, Patrick & Hamlin, William M. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Scholar, Richard (2017). Montaigne on Free-Thinking. In The Oxford Handbook of Montaigne. Desan, Philippe Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 434-452.
  • Scholar, Richard (2015). The Archipelago Goes Global: Late Glissant and the Early Modern Isolario. In Caribbean Globalizations, 1492 to the Present Day. Sansavior, Eva & Scholar, Richard Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. 33-57.

Edited book

  • Scholar, Richard, Kenny, Neil & Williams, Wes (2016). Montaigne in Transit: Essays in Honour of Ian Maclean. Oxford: Legenda.
  • Scholar, Richard & Sansavior, Eva (2015). Caribbean Globalizations, 1492 to the Present Day. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  • Scholar, Richard & Tadié, Alexis (2010). Fiction and the Frontiers of Knowledge in Europe, 1500-1800. Burlington, VT, and Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Scholar, Richard & Holland, Anna (2009). Pre-Histories and Afterlives: Studies in Critical Method. Cambridge: Legenda.

Journal Article

  • Scholar, Richard (2016). Montaigne et la “vanité” des utopies. Revue de synthèse 137(3-4): 321-343.
  • Scholar, Richard (2013). De la dispute utopienne à la controverse religieuse: deux querelles signées Thomas More. Littératures classiques 81: 37-49.
  • Scholar, Richard (2013). Epilogue: Co-operations. Seventeenth-Century French Studies 35(2 - Special issue Pascal’s Écrits sur la gràce): 179-86.
  • Scholar, Richard (2006). Two Cheers for Free-Thinking. Paragraph 29(Theory and the Early Modern): 40-53.
  • Scholar, Richard (2003). "Je Ne Sais Quelle Grâce": Esther before Assuérus. French Studies 56: 317-27.
  • Scholar, Richard (1998). Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: A Case-Study in Translation? Translation and Literature 7: 42-55.

Scholarly Edition

  • Pascal, Blaise (orig.) (2003). Entretien avec Sacy sur la philosophie: extrait des Mémoires de Fontaine . Actes Sud

Translated Book

  • Pigeard de Gurbert, Guillaume & Scholar, Richard (trans.) (2006). Carroll, Lewis, Alice au jardin d’enfants . Hachette Jeunesse
  • O'Brien, Fitz-James, Pigeard de Gurbert, Guilluame & Scholar, Richard (trans.) (1998). Qu’était-ce ? . Actes Sud
  • Pigeard de Gurbert, Guillaume & Scholar, Richard (trans.) (1997). Stevenson, Robert Louis, L’Étrange Affaire du Dr Jekyll et de Mr Hyde . Actes Sud