Professor Tom Moore
Professor and Head of Department
|Professor and Head of Department in the Department of Archaeology|
I am a specialist in the British and European Iron Age with a focus on landscape and field archaeology. My research is underpinned by a collaborative approach: I work closely with partners across Europe, comparatively with colleagues in Early Medieval studies, and co-productively with stakeholders beyond archaeology. I have been at Durham since 2006 having previously worked at the University of Newcastle and Cotswold Archaeology.
My research builds on my major field-based research projects, to examine how the transformations in monuments and society of the Iron Age can better be understood in wider comparison to social and urban development around the world.
Oppida and alternative urban trajectories
The massive complexes, known as ‘oppida’, which appeared at the end of the Iron Age, represent a fundamental social transformation in European Prehistory. Often regarded as the first towns north of the Alps, these developments have traditionally been studied in isolation. Underpinned by major field-based projects, my research explores the comparative context of these developments, demonstrating how they should best be viewed alongside a range of alternative urban trajectories, such as low-density urbanism, elsewhere in the world. Two major projects are reassessing these complexes, taking a landscape archaeology approach to understanding their role, origins and place within wider settlement patterns. (1) Examining the nature of Late Iron Age urbanism in Gaul: Through survey and excavation, this project has sought to understand the nature of the environs of the world renowned oppidum of Bibracte in Burgundy, France. Our discovery of a massive, contemporary unenclosed complex at Sources de l’Yonne, close to Bibracte, is demonstrating the more complex nature of the Late Iron Age oppidum, potentially indicating that it is an example of dispersed urbanism. The first phase of this collaborative project, conducted with colleagues from the USA, France and Germany, is now in post-excavation. A second phase (with Ralf Hoppadietz, Leipzig/ Bibracte EPPC) is now examining the Gallo-Roman sanctuaries at the heart of the complex, establishing that they overlie Late La Tene religious structures. (2) A biography of power: Bagendon ‘oppidum’. An extensive field project at this major Iron Age complex in Gloucestershire, UK, has recently been published. It explores the changing nature of power and identity from the Iron Age to Roman period. Combining large-scale geophysical survey of the entire complex with analysis of both historic and new excavations. It is providing a radical new appreciation of the nature of this ‘oppidum’ as a landscape of power, with earlier origins and more complex roles than previously envisaged. It radically reassesses how we should define these complexes and their socio-political importance at the turn of the 1st millennium BC.
Social complexity, landscape and heterarchy.
My work explores how the large social entities of the Iron Age manipulated places and landscape to articulate new forms of power. Exploring notions of heterarchy (e.g. Moore and Gonzalez forthcoming), building on my work on tribes and social organisation, it critically examines how we reconstruct and define larger social, political and ethnic entities, challenging simplistic notions of social complexity. Emphasising the connection between landscape and power, my recent work emphasises a comparative approach. Working with colleagues in Early Medieval studies, a new major Leverhulme funded project (‘Monumentality and Landscape: Linear earthworks in Britain’, with PI-Andrew Reynolds, UCL) will explore how both Early Medieval and Iron Age societies defined and manipulated landscape as expressions of power.
Historiography and European Iron Age research and agendas
There have long been theoretical and methodological contrasts in European 1st millennium BC studies. I am keen on breaking down the barriers between different approaches. To this end, I co-organized an international conference to explore these issues. This resulted in a book ‘Crossing the Divide’ (OUP 2011) which focused on critical discussion of the problems with, and reasons behind, current divisions. Many of my other publications explore the current state and future direction of Iron Age studies in Britain and beyond.
Landscape sustainability and management
I believe it is crucial to explore how we can transmit landscape archaeological research into contemporary reconsiderations of sustainable management of Europe’s landscapes. A major European project ‘REFIT: resituating Europe’s first towns: A case study in enhancing knowledge transfer and developing sustainable management of cultural landscapes’ has used oppida as case studies in exploring the ways in which farming, heritage and wildlife can be integrated in landscape management. Funded by an EU-JPICH Heritage Plus grant (€354,000) this project is a cooperation with partners in France (Bibracte EPPC) and Spain (Universidad Complutense, Madrid) and worked co-productively with key landscape stakeholders: Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust; Reseau de Grand Sites de France; Natural Parc du Morvan; Regional Government of Avíla and Cotswold Archaeology. The project has developed a broader understanding of the perceptions and needs of stakeholders whilst integrating them into developing new strategies and policies. It emphasises the need to champion archaeology as a key driver in connecting stakeholders in sustainable landscape management.
Digital and other resources from the project can be found at: www.refitproject.com
PhD student research
I am keen to supervise postgraduate research on any area related to the themes above or aspects of the European Iron Age. Past students have undertaken topics such as:
Arthur Anderson Traditions and Transitions: Later and Roman Iron Age Communities in the North-East of England. (now adjunct lecturer University of New England, USA)
Paul Murtagh Materiality, community and identity: The Iron Age of west central Scotland. (now CAVLP Heritage Project Officer, Northlight Heritage)
Elizabeth Foulds 'Iron Age glass beads from Britain: a social approach' (now Finds Specialist, Northern Archaeological Associates)
Sam Wilford 'Riddles in the Dark? Cavescapes Across The British Isles During the 1st Millennia BC and AD (800BC-800AD)' (now Sr. Archaeologist, Florida, USA, Department of State Historical Resources).
Jo Zalea Matias Facing Gender: A Historiographical Analysis of Gender Construction in Iron Age Britain.(now Wilbur Wright College, Chicago, USA)
- Approaches to heritage and cultural landscape management
- Iron Age Britain and France
- Landscape archaeology
- Late Iron Age/Roman transition
- Oppida and the Late Iron Age in Europe
- Social systems and social networks
- 2021: Member, Comité scientifique, ‘NEMESIS International research project’ (CNRS, France):
- 2011: 2011-2014: Member, Council of the Prehistoric Society:
- 2008: Elected Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries:
- 2006: Member and co-author for the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age committee, English Heritage South West Regional Research Framework:
- 2006: Invited research associate at the Centre archéologique européen a Bibracte and project leader (2006-present):
- 2000: Panel of Academic Advisors for Cotswold Archaeology: Providing research knowledge transfer to developer-led archaeological projects.
- Moore, T. (2020). A Biography of power: research and excavations at the Iron Age 'oppidum' of Bagendon, Gloucestershire (1979-2017). Archaeopress
- Greene, K., & Moore, T. (2010). Archaeology: an introduction. (5th ed.). Routledge
- Trow, S., James, S., & Moore, T. (2009). Becoming Roman, Being Gallic, Staying British. Research and excavations at Ditches 'hillfort' and villa 1984-2006. Oxbow
- Moore, T. (2006). Iron Age societies in the Severn-Cotswolds: developing narratives of social and landscape change. Archaeopress
Chapter in book
- Moore, T. (2023). From farmstead to oppidum: re-examining the trajectory of centralisation and specialisation in Later Iron Age Britain. In E. Hiriart, S. Krausz, A. Alcantara, C. Filet, P. Goláňová, J. Hantrais, & V. Mathé (Eds.), Les agglomérations dans le monde celtique et ses marges. Nouvelles approches et perspectives de recherche (123-146). Ausonius Éditions. https://doi.org/10.46608/nemesis1.9782356135285.6
- Moore, T., & Tully, G. (2021). Exploring archaeology’s place in participatory European cultural landscape management: perspectives from the ‘REFIT’ project. In E. Stegmeijer, & L. Veldpaus (Eds.), A Research Agenda for Heritage Planning. Perspectives from Europe (61-73). Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788974639
- Moore, T., & González-Álvarez, D. (2021). Societies against the Chief? Re-examining the value of ‘heterarchy’ as a concept for examining European Iron Age societies. In M. Fernandez-Götz, & T. Thurston (Eds.), Power from Below in pre-modern societies. The dynamics of political complexity in the archaeological record (125-156). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009042826.007
- Moore, T., & Hoppadietz, R. (2019). La sanctuaire des Sources de l’Yonne. In V. Guichard (Ed.), Rapport intermédiaire 2018 du programme quadriennal de recherche 2017-2020 sur le Mont-Beuvray (291-317.). BIBRACTE
- Moore, T., & Hoppadietz, R. (2018). Le sanctuaire des Sources de l'Yonne. In V. Guichard (Ed.), Rapport intermédiaire 2017 du programme quadriennal de recherche 2017-2020 sur le Mont Beuvray (307-324.). Bibracte - Centre archéologique européen, Glux-en-Glenne
- Moore, T. (2018). Wealth, status, and occupation groups. In C. Haselgrove, K. Rebay-Salisbury, & P. Wells (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the European Iron Age. Oxford University Press
- Moore, T. (2017). Caesar on Britain. In K. Raaflaub, & R. Strassler (Eds.), The Landmark Julius Caesar (52-56). Landmark
- Moore, T., & Hoppadietz, R. (2016). Le sanctuaire de Sources de l'Yonne - 2016. In V. Guichard (Ed.), Programme quadriennal 2013-1016 de recherche sur le mont Beuvray, rapport annuel 2016, synthèse (251-270). Bibracte - Centre archéologique européen
- Haselgrove, C., & Moore, T. (2016). Iron Age and Roman settlement in the Stanwick Environs. In C. Haselgrove (Ed.), Cartimandua's capital? The late Iron Age royal site at Stanwick, North Yorkshire, fieldwork and analysis 1981-2011 (358-374). Oxbow
- Moore, T. (2016). Britain, Gaul, and Germany: cultural interactions. In M. Millett, L. Revell, & A. Moore (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain (262-282). Oxford University Press
- Moore, T. (2014). The birth of a capital? Bagendon 'Oppidum' and the impact of Rome on the British countryside. In D. J. Breeze (Ed.), The impact of Rome on the British countryside : a conference organised by the Royal Archaeological Institute, Chester, 11-13 October 2013 (26-30). Royal Archaeological Institute
- Moore, T., & Ponroy, C. (2014). What's in a wall? Considerations on the role of open settlements in Late La Tène Gaul. In M. Fernández-Götz, H. Wendling, & K. Winger (Eds.), Paths to complexity : centralisation and urbanisation in Iron Age Europe (140-155). Oxbow Books
- Moore, T., & Armada, X. (2012). Crossing the divide: opening a dialogue on approaches to Western European first millennium BC studies. In T. Moore, & X. Armada (Eds.), Atlantic Europe in the first millennium BC : crossing the divide (3-77). Oxford University Press
- Moore, T. (2009). La construction des communautés : Nouvelles perspectives sur l’habitat, le monde rural et la société de l’Âge du Fer en Grande-Bretagne occidentale. In I. Bertrand, A. Duval, J. Gomez de Soto, & P. Maguer (Eds.), Habitats et paysages ruraux en Gaule et regards sur d'autres régions du monde celtique. Actes du XXXIe colloque international de l'Association Française pour l'Etude de l'Âge du Fer : 17-20 mai 2007, Chauvigny (Vienne, F) (363-382). Association des Publications Chauvinoises (Mémoire XXXV)
- Fitzpatrick, A., Brunning, R., Johns, C., Minnit, S., Moore, T., & Mullin, D. (2008). Later Bronze Age and Iron Age (Edited by Andrew Fitzpatrick from contributions by Richard Brunning, Andrew Fitzpatrick, Charlie Johns, Steve Minnitt, Tom Moore and David Mullin). In C. Webster (Ed.), The Archaeology of South West England: South West Archaeological Research Framework Resource assessment and Research Agenda. Somerset County Council
- Creighton, J., & Moore, T. (2008). Sondages au site des sources de l'Yonne, commune de Glux-en-Glenne. In V. Guichard (Ed.), Rapport Annuel d'activite 2007 (211-218). Bibracte
- Creighton, J., Haupt, P., Klenner, I., Moore, T., & Schoenfelder, M. (2007). Prospections autour de Bibracte: Sites des sources de l'Yonne, commune Glux-en-Glenne. In V. Guichard (Ed.), Rapport annuel d'activité 2006 (193-201). Bibracte. Centre archeologique europeen
- Moore, T. (2007). The early to later Iron Age transition in the Severn-Cotswolds: enclosing the household?. In C. Haselgrove, & R. Pope (Eds.), The earlier Iron Age in Britain and the near Continent (259-278). Oxbow Books
- Moore, T. (2007). Life on the edge? Exchange, community and identity in the later Iron Age of the Severn-Cotswolds. In C. Haselgrove, & T. Moore (Eds.), The later Iron Age in Britain and beyond (41-61). Oxbow Books
- Haselgrove, C., & Moore, T. (2007). New narratives of the Later Iron Age. In C. Haselgrove, & T. Moore (Eds.), The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond (1-15). Oxbow
- Moore, T. (2006). The Iron Age. In N. Holbrook, & J. Jurica (Eds.), Twenty-five years of Archaeology in Gloucestershire: A review of new discoveries and new thinking in Gloucestershire, South Gloucestershire and Bristol 1979-2004 (61-96). Cotswold Archaeology BGAR 3
- Moore, T. (2003). Rectangular Houses in the British Iron Age - Squaring the Circle?. In J. Humphrey (Ed.), Re-Searching the Iron Age (47-58). Leicester University Monograph 11
- Moore, T. (2006). Following the digger: the impact of developer-funded archaeology on academic and public perceptions of cultural landscapes.
- Moore, T., & Armada, X. (Eds.). (2011). Atlantic Europe in the first millennium BC: Crossing the divide. Oxford University Press
- Moore, T., Reynolds, A., Garland, N., & Harris, B. (2023). Crossing Crawford's conceptual divide: monumental linear earthworks in later prehistoric and early medieval Britain. Antiquity, https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2023.117
- Moore, T., Hoppadietz, R., Wendling, H., & Winger, K. (2023). Considering European Iron Age oppida and Comparative Urbanism: The Case of Bibracte and Manching. Journal of urban archaeology, 7, 169-195. https://doi.org/10.1484/j.jua.5.133455
- Moore, T., & Fernández-Götz, M. (2022). Bringing the Country to Town: ‘Rurban’ Landscapes in Iron Age Europe. Journal of urban archaeology, 5, 101-125. https://doi.org/10.1484/j.jua.5.129845
- Garland, N., Harris, B., Moore, T., & Reynolds, A. (2021). Exploring Linear Earthworks across Time and Space – Introducing the ‘Monumentality and Landscape: Linear Earthworks in Britain’ Project. Offa's Dyke journal, 3, 129-150. https://doi.org/10.23914/odj.v3i0.316
- Moore, T., Guichard, V., & Álvarez Sanchís, J. (2020). The place of archaeology in integrated cultural landscape management. A case study comparing landscapes with Iron Age oppida in England, France and Spain. Journal of European Landscapes, 1, 9-28. https://doi.org/10.5117/jel.2020.1.47039
- Moore, T., & Tully, G. (2018). Connecting landscapes: Examining and enhancing the relationship between stakeholder values and cultural landscape management in England. Landscape Research, 43(6), 769-783. https://doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2017.1360471
- Moore, T. (2017). Alternatives to urbanism? Reconsidering oppida and the urban question in Late Iron Age Europe. Journal of World Prehistory, 30(3), 281-300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-017-9109-4
- Moore, T. (2017). Beyond Iron Age ‘towns’: Examining oppida as examples of low-density urbanism. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 36(3), 287-305. https://doi.org/10.1111/ojoa.12116
- Moore, T., Braun, A., Creighton, J., Cripps, L., Haupt, P., Klenner, I., …Schönfelder, M. (2013). Oppida, agglomerations and suburbia: The Bibracte environs and new perspectives on Late Iron Age urbanism in central-eastern France. European Journal of Archaeology, 16(3), 491-517. https://doi.org/10.1179/1461957113y.0000000034
- Moore, T. (2012). Beyond the Oppida: Polyfocal Complexes and Late Iron Age Societies in Southern Britain. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 31(4), 391-417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0092.2012.00395.x
- Moore, T. (2011). Detribalizing the later prehistoric past: concepts of tribes in Iron Age and Roman studies. Journal of Social Archaeology, 11(3), 334-360. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469605311403861
- Creighton, J., Haselgrove, C., Lowther, P., & Moore, T. (2008). Becoming Roman in southern Burgundy: A field survey between Autun and Bibracte in the Arroux Valley (Saône-et-Loire), 2000-2003. Internet Archaeology,
- Moore, T. (2007). Perceiving communities: exchange, landscapes and social networks in the later Iron Age of western Britain. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 26(1), 79-102. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0092.2007.00274.x
- Creighton, J., Haupt, P., Klenner, I., Moore, T., Nouvel, P., Petit, C., & Schönfelder, M. (2007). Prospections autour de Bibracte : Nouvelles méthodes et nouveaux résultats. Bulletin (Association française pour l'étude de l'âge du fer), 25, 17-20
- Moore, T. (2001). An archaeological assessment of Hailey Wood Camp, Sapperton, Gloucestershire: a Roman temple complex in the Cotswolds?. Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 119, 83-93
- Moore, T., & Reece, R. (2001). The Dobunni. Gloucester and District Archaeological Research Group review, 34, 17-26