During the period of European modernism (c1850-1930) meteorological science developed in significant ways: the first same-day weather forecast (1851); the infrastructural innovations of the UK meteorological office (1854); the first collaboration between the Smithsonian Institute and the telegraph service in the USA (1861); the first synoptic weather charts by Francis Galton (1863); the first analyses of upper air flows (the weather above the weather we see and feel) (1890s); and the first mathematical forecast by Lewis Fry Richardson (1922).
This history comprises a systematic and technological reorganisation of natural knowledge; but more than this, as a series of readjustments in the mapping of space and time, it describes a shift in the cultural and perceptual experience of nature. It is this shift that modernist literature bears witness to. The research questions for this project are as follows:
Read more about the literary legacies of modern forecasting and how World War 1 changed the weather for good.
For further information please contact Dr Barry Sheils.