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X-ray tube with a molybdenum (Mo) anode

X-ray tube with a molybdenum (Mo) anode

X-ray tube with a molybdenum (Mo) anode

Monocrystal (NaCl) in the X-ray machine

Monocrystal (NaCl)

Monocrystal - Wear plastic gloves when handling

The Properties of X-Rays and Atomic Spectra

In this session you will have:

Learnt the principles of x-ray generation and x-ray spectra recorded by means of Bragg diffraction


Learnt the fundamentals of Bragg diffraction and the application of Bragg's Law to crystallography


Understood the energy spectra as a superposition of the continuum of bremsstrahlung radiation and the lines of the characteristic x-ray radiation of the anode material


Learnt the operation of a computer controlled x-ray apparatus and gonimeter


Kept and submitted a clearly laid out set of laboratory notes


X-rays are electromagnetic waves in a range which have a wavelength comparable to atomic separation in crystals. When they impinge on such a crystal the waves are diffracted into patterns which are dependent on the structure of the crystal.

One reliable method of producing x-rays is to fire thermal electrons at a copper target in an "x-ray tube" as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig 1. X-ray tube

This technology is fundamentally the same as the electron gun in any cathode ray tube, but with a copper target instead of a phosphor one.



The script for this experiment can be found in the lab script book or on DUO.