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  • Zimmerman, D., Bartick, M., Feldman-Winter, L., Ball, H. L., & Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. (2023). ABM Clinical Protocol# 37: Physiological Infant Care—Managing Nighttime Breastfeeding in Young Infants. Breastfeeding Medicine, 18(3), 159-168. 10.1089/bfm.2023.29236.abm
  •  Rudzik, A. E., Robinson-Smith, L., Tugwell, F., & Ball, H. L. (2023). Relationships between postpartum depression, sleep, and infant feeding in the early postpartum: An exploratory analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1133386. 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1133386  
  • Pal, E., Blackwell, J. E., Ball, H. L., & Collings, P. J. (2023). Sociodemographic, temporal and bedtime routine correlates of sleep timing and duration in South Asian and white children: A Born in Bradford study. Sleep Medicine: X, 5, 100068.   10.1016/j.sleepx.2023.100068
  • Dixley, A., & Ball, H. L. (2023). The impact of swaddling upon breastfeeding: A critical review. American Journal of Human Biology, e23878. 10.1002/ajhb.23878
  • Ball, H.L., Keegan, A.A., Whitehouse, D.R., Cooper, L.S., Lovell-Kennedy, S.R., Murray, L.M., Newbury-Birch, D., Cleghorn, N.J. & Healy, A. (2023). Multiagency approaches to preventing sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI): a review and analysis of UK policies. BMJ Public Health, 1(1). 10.1136/bmjph-2023-000017
  • Stott, J., Coleman, E., Hamilton, A., Blackwell, J., & Ball, H. L. (2023). Exploring the Longitudinal Relationship Between Short Sleep Duration, Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in a Biethnic Population of Children Aged Between 6 and 61 Months: A Born in Bradford Study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 27(9), 929-938. 10.1177/10870547231168433
  • Silva-Caballero, A., Ball, H. L., Kramer, K. L., & Bentley, G. R. (2023). Sleep deprivation among adolescents in urban and indigenous-rural Mexican communities. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 1058. 10.1038/s41598-023-28330-8



  • Teti, D. M., Ball, H. L., & Tikotzky, L. (2022). “Sleep and the family system”—A preface. Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation, 8(1), 28-30. 10.1016/j.sleh.2021.12.004
  • Eatt, J., Watson, S. J., Ball, H. L., Sevar, K., & Galbally, M. (2022). Maternal depression and early parenting: A comparison between culturally and linguistically diverse and Australian born mothers. Australasian Psychiatry, 30(1), 119-125. 10.1177/10398562211052886
  • Tinková, L. M., & Ball, H. L. (2022). Lost in translation—the influence of language on infant sleep research. Sleep Health, 8(1), 96-100.   10.1016/j.sleh.2021.10.010
  • Blair, P. S., Ball, H. L., Pease, A., & Fleming, P. J. (2023). Bed-sharing and SIDS: an evidence-based approach. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 108(4), e6-e6. 10.1136/archdischild-2021-323469
  • Dixley, A., & Ball, H. L. (2022). The effect of swaddling on infant sleep and arousal: A systematic review and narrative synthesis. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 10, 1000180. 10.3389/fped.2022.1000180
  • Ball, H.L., Keegan, AA. (2022) Digital health tools to support parents with parent-infant sleep and mental well-being. npj Digit. Med. 5, 185
  • Ball, H. (2022). Sleep Patterns of Twins. In Contemporary Issues in Perinatal Education (pp. 124-129). Routledge. 10.4324/9781003223771-21
  • Bartick, M., Young, M., Louis-Jacques, A., McKenna, J. J., & Ball, H. L. (2022). Bedsharing may partially explain the reduced risk of sleep-related death in breastfed infants. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 10, 2218.   10.3389/fped.2022.1081028
  • Blair, P.S., Ball, H.L., McKenna, J.J., Feldman-Winter, L., Marinella, K., Bartick, M.C., , (2022) Appendix I - Bedsharing and Breastfeeding: The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol #6, Revision 2019 Breastfeeding (Ninth Edition) A Guide for the Medical Profession 2022, Pages 818-829 10.1016/B978-0-323-68013-4.00043-2


  • Rudzik, A. E., & Ball, H. L. (2021). Biologically normal sleep in the mother‐infant dyad. American journal of human biology, 33(5), e23589.
  • Ball, H.L., Taylor, C.E., Yuill, C.M., (2021) A Box to Put the Baby in: UK Parent Perceptions of Two Baby Box Programmes Promoted for Infant Sleep. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. ; 18(21):11473.
  • Phillips, S. M., Summerbell, C., Ball, H. L., Hesketh, K. R., Saxena, S., & Hillier-Brown, F. C. (2021). The validity, reliability, and feasibility of measurement tools used to assess sleep of pre-school aged children: a systematic rapid review. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 9, 1320.
  • Collings, P. J., Blackwell, J. E., Pal, E., Ball, H. L., & Wright, J. (2021). Associations of diarised sleep onset time, period and duration with total and central adiposity in a biethnic sample of young children: the Born in Bradford observational cohort study. BMJ open, 11(5), e044769.   10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044769



  • Ball HL, Tomori C, McKenna JJ. (2019) Towards and integrated anthropology of infant sleep. American Anthropologist (early view online published 8 July 2019).
  • Marinelli, K. A., Ball, H. L., McKenna, J. J., & Blair, P. S. (2019). An Integrated Analysis of Maternal-Infant Sleep, Breastfeeding, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Research Supporting a Balanced Discourse. Journal of Human Lactation, 35(3), 510–520.
  • Ball, H. L. (2019). Conducting Online Surveys. Journal of Human Lactation, 35(3), 413–417. 
  • Helen L Ball. (2019) The Mother-Infant Sleep Nexus: night-time experiences in early infancy and later outcomes In The Mother-Infant Nexus in Anthropology: Small beginnings, significant outcomes. Edited by Rebecca Gowland. Sian Halcrow. Springer: London. 
  • Helen L. Ball (2019) Breastfeeding and Infant Sleep: what medical professionals need to know Breastfeeding for Medical Professionals eds Brown and Jones. Routledge: London 
  • C Tomori, K Boyer (2019) Domestic Geographies of Parental and Infant (Co-) Becomings: Home-Space, Nighttime Breastfeeding, and Parent–Infant Sleep Annals of the American Association of Geographers 109 (4), 1172-1187 
  • M Bartick, C Tomori (2019) Sudden infant death and social justice: A syndemics approach Maternal & child nutrition 15 (1), e12652 


  • Ball HL, Douglas PS, et al. (2018) The Possums Infant Sleep Program: parents' perspectives on a novel parent-infant sleep intervention in Australia. Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation. 4(6):519-526. 10.1016/j.sleh.2018.08.0076. 
  • Rudzik AEF, Robinson L, Ball HL (2018) “Discrepancies in maternal reports of infant sleep vs. actigraphy by mode of feeding.” Sleep Medicine 
  • Galbally M, Watson SJ, Ball HL, Lewis AJ (2018) Breastfeeding, antidepressants, and depression in the mercy pregnancy and emotional well-being study. Journal of Human Lactation. 
  • Bartick M, Tomori C, Ball HL (2018) “Babies in Boxes and the missing links on safe sleep: Human evolution and cultural revolution.” Maternal & Child Nutrition 14(2) e12544 
  • Cecilia Tomori (2018) Changing cultures of night-time breastfeeding and sleep in the US. In Social experiences of breastfeeding: Building bridges between research, policy and practice pp115-130 Policy Press 


  • Ball, Helen L. (2017). Evolution-informed maternal-infant health. Nature Ecology & Evolution1(3): 0073. 
  • Ball, Helen L. (2017). The Atlantic Divide: contrasting U.K. & U.S. recommendations on cosleeping and bed-sharing. Journal of Human Lactation33(4): 765-769. 
  • Bartick, Melissa, Tomori, Cecília & Ball, Helen L. (2017). Babies in boxes and the missing links on safe sleep: Human evolution and cultural revolution. Maternal & Child Nutrition e12544 
  • Robinson-Smith, Lyn & Ball, Helen L. (2017). Sleep and cognitive function in young children. The International Journal of Birth and Parent Education5(1): 27-30. 
  • Sullivan, S.S. & Ball H.L. (2017). Early Childhood Pediatric Sleep Concerns for Parents: Co-sleeping. In Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Stein, John Elsevier. 
  • Tomori, Cecilia (2017). The Inequities of Nighttime Breastfeeding. In Breastfeeding, Social Justice, and Equity. Smith, Paige Hall, Labbok, Miriam & Chambers, Brittany Praeclarus Press. 231-238. 


  • Ball, H., Howell, D., Bryant, A., Best, E., Russell, C. & Ward-Platt, M. (2016). Bed-sharing by breastfeeding mothers: who bed-shares, and what is the relationship with breastfeeding duration? Acta Paediatrica105(6): 628-634. 
  • Collings, P., Ball, H., Santorelli, G., West, J., Barber, S., McEachan, R. & Wright, J. (2017). Sleep duration and adiposity in early childhood: evidence for bidirectional associations from the Born in Bradford study. SLEEP40(2): zsw054. 
  • Crane, D. & Ball, H.L. (2016). A qualitative study in parental perceptions and understanding of SIDS-reduction guidance in a UK bi-cultural urban community. BMC Pediatrics16: 23. 
  • Cronin-de-Chavez, Anna, Ball, Helen L. & Ward-Platt, Martin P. (2016). Bi-ethnic infant thermal care beliefs in Bradford, UK. International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare9(2): 120-134. 
  • Rudzik, Alanna E.F. & Ball, Helen L. (2016). Baby-Lag: Methods for assessing parental tiredness and fatigue. In Biological measures of human experience across the lifespan: making visible the invisible. Seivert, Lynette Leidy & Brown, Daniel E. Cham: Springer. 29-46. 
  • Rudzik, Alanna E. & Ball, Helen L. (2016). Exploring maternal perceptions of infant sleep and feeding method among mothers in the United Kingdom: A qualitative focus group study. Maternal and Child Health Journal20(1): 33-40 
  • Russell, Charlotte K., Volpe, Lane E. & Ball, Helen L. (2016). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. In Evolutionary thinking in medicine: from research to policy and practice. Alvergne, A., Jenkinson, C. & Faurie, C. Cham: Springer. 61-74. 
  • Russell, C.K., Robinson, L. & Ball, H.L. (2013). Infant Sleep Development: Location, Feeding and Expectations in the Postnatal Period. The Open Sleep Journal6(Suppl 1): M9, 68-76. 


  • Ball, Helen L. (2015). The BMJ illustrates hazardous co-sleeping. BMJ350: h993. 
  • Ball, Helen L. (2015). Empowering families to make informed choices about sleep safety. British Journal of Midwifery23(3): 164-165. 
  • Fairley, Lesley, Santorelli, Gillian, Lawlor, Debbie A., Bryant, Maria, Bhopal, Raj, Petherick, Emily S., Sahota, Pinki, Greenwood, Darren C., Hill, Andrew J., Cameron, Noel, Ball, Helen L., Barber, Sally & Wright, John (2015). The relationship between early life modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, ethnicity and body mass index at age 3 years: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study. BMC Obesity2(1): 9. 
  • Russell, Charlotte K., Whitmore, Mary, Burrows, Dawn & Ball, Helen L. (2015). Where might my baby sleep? Design and evaluation of a novel discussion tool for parent education. International Journal of Birth and Parenting Education2(2): 11-15. 
  • Russell, Charlotte K. & Ball, Helen L. (2015). Bed-sharing, co-sleeping and parent education--a time for change. International Journal of Birth and Parenting Education2(2): 19-20. 
  • Taylor, Catherine E., Tully, Kristin P. & Ball, Helen L. (2015). Night-time on a postnatal ward: experiences of mothers, infants, and staff. In Ethnographic Research in Maternal and Child Health. Dykes, Fiona C. & Flacking, Renée Routledge. 117-140. 
  • Tomori, Cecilia, Palmquist, Aunchalee E.L. & Dowling, Sally (2016). Contested moral landscapes: Negotiating breastfeeding stigma in breastmilk sharing, nighttime breastfeeding, and long-term breastfeeding in the U.S. and the U.K. Social Science & Medicine168: 178-185. 
  • Tomori, Cecilia (2015). The Challenges of Nighttime Breastfeeding in the U.S. In It Takes a Village: The Role of the Greater Community in Inspiring and Empowering Women to Breastfeed. Smith, Paige Hall & Labbok, Miriam Amarillo, Texas: Praeclarus Press. 117-122. 
  • Volpe, Lane E. & Ball, Helen L. (2015). Infant sleep-related deaths: why do parents take risks? Archives of Disease in Childhood100(7): 603-604 


  • Ball, H.L. & Russell, C.K. (2014). SIDS & Infant Sleep Ecology. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health2014(1): 146. 
  • Ball, Helen L. (2014). Reframing what we tell parents about normal infant sleep and how we support them. Breastfeeding Review22(3): 11-12. 
  • Jones, Caroline H.D. & Ball, Helen L. (2014). Exploring socioeconomic differences in bedtime behaviours and sleep duration in English preschool children. Infant and Child Development23(5): 518-531. 
  • Jones, Caroline HD, Pollard, Tessa M, Summerbell, CD & Ball, Helen L (2014). Could parental rules play a role in the association between short sleep and obesity in young children? Journal of Biosocial Science46(3): 405-418. 
  • Tomori, Cecilia (2014). Nighttime Breastfeeding: An American Cultural Dilemma. Berghahn Books 
  • Tully, Kristin P. & Ball, Helen L. (2014). Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth. Midwifery30(6): 712-719. 


  • Ball, H.L. (2013). Supporting parents who are worried about their newborn’s sleep. British medical journal346: f2344. 
  • Ball, Helen L. & Russell, Charlotte K. (2013). Effect of behavioural-educational intervention on sleep for primiparous women and their infants in early postpartum: multisite randomised controlled trial. Student BMJ346: f1164. 
  • Ball, H.L. & Volpe, L.E. (2013). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) risk reduction and infant sleep location: Moving the discussion forward. Social Science & Medicine79: 84-91. 
  • Howel, Denise & Ball, Helen L. (2013). Association between Length of Exclusive Breastfeeding and Subsequent Breastfeeding Continuation. Journal of Human Lactation29(4): 579-585. 
  • Jones, C. & Ball, H.L. (2013). Napping in English preschool children and the association with parents’ attitudes. Sleep Medicine14(4): 352–358. 
  • Tully, K.P. & Ball, H.L. (2013). Misrecognition of need women's experiences of and explanations for undergoing cesarean delivery. Social science and medicine85: 103-111. 
  • Tully, K.P. & Ball, H.L. (2013). Trade-offs underlying maternal breastfeeding decisions: a conceptual model. Maternal & Child Nutrition9(1): 90-98. 
  • Volpe, L.E., Ball, H.L. & McKenna, J.J. (2013). Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants. Social Science & Medicine79: 92-100. 


  • Ball, H.L., Moya, E. Fairley, L., Westman, J., Oddie, S. & Wright, J. (2012). Bed and sofa-sharing practices in a UK biethnic population. Pediatrics129(3): e673-e681. 
  • Ball, H.L., Moya, E., Fairley, L., Westman, J., Oddie, S. & Wright, J. (2012). Infant care practices related to sudden infants death syndrome in South Asian and White British families in the UK. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 26(1): 3-12. 
  • Ball, H.L. (2012). Sleeping with the baby. Breastfeeding Briefs53: 1-12. 
  • Ball, H.L. (2012). The latest on bed-sharing and breastfeeding. Community Practitioner85(1): 29-31. 
  • Ball, H.L. & Russell, C.K. (2012). Night-time nurturing: an evolutionary perspective on breastfeeding and sleep. In Evolution, Early Experience and Human Development: From Research to Practice and Policy. Narváez, D., Panksepp, J., Schore, A. & Gleason, T. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 241-261. 
  • Jones, C. & Ball, H.L. (2012). Medical Anthropology and Children’s Sleep: The Mismatch between Western Lifestyles and Sleep Physiology. In Sleep: multi-professional perspectives. Green, A. & Westcombe, A.M. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 86-103. 
  • Russell, C.K., Howel, D., Ward-Platt, M.P. & Ball, H.L. (2012). Use of interactive telephone technology for longitudinal data collection in a large trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials33: 364-368. 
  • Tully, K.P. & Ball, H.L. (2012). Postnatal Unit Bassinet Types When Rooming-In After Cesarean Section Birth: Implications for Breastfeeding and Infant Safety. Journal of Human Lactation28(4): 495-505. 


  • Ball, H.L., Ward-Platt, M.P. Howel, D. & Russell, C.K. (2011). Randomised trial of sidecar crib use on breastfeeding duration (NECOT). Archives of Disease in Childhood96(7): 630-634. 


  • Ball, H.L. (2009). Bed-sharing and co-sleeping: Research overview. New Digest48: 22-27. 
  • Ball, H.L. (2009). Airway covering during bed-sharing. Child: Care, Health and Development35(5): 728-737. 
  • Tomori, Cecilia (2009). Breastfeeding as Men’s “Kin Work” in the United States. Phoebe: Gender and Cultural Critiques21(2): 31-44. 


  • van den Berg, Martina & Ball, Helen L. (2008). Practices, advice and support regarding prolonged breastfeeding: a descriptive study from Sri Lanka. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology26(3): 229-243. 


  • Ball, H.L. (2008). Evolutionary Paediatrics: a case study in applying Darwinian Medicine. In Medicine and Evolution: Current Applications, Future Prospects. Elton, S. & O'Higgins, P. New York: Taylor & Francis. 127-152. 


  • Ball, Helen L. (2007). Together or apart? A behavioural and physiological investigation of sleeping arrangements for twin babies. Midwifery 23(4): 404-412. 
  • Ball, Helen L. (2007). Bed-sharing practices of initially breastfed infants in the first 6 months of life. Infant and Child Development 16(4): 387-401. 
  • Ball, H.L. & Klingaman, K.P. (2007). Breastfeeding and mother-infant sleep proximity: implications for infant care. In Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives. Trevathan, W., Smith, E.O. & McKenna, J.J. New York: Oxford University Press. 226-241. 
  • Klingaman, K. & Ball, H. (2007). Anthropology of caesarean section birth and breastfeeding: Rationale for evolutionary medicine on the postnatal ward. Durham Anthropology Journal14(1). 
  • McKenna, James J., Ball, Helen L. & Gettler, Lee T. (2007). Mother–Infant Cosleeping, Breastfeeding and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: What Biological Anthropology Has Discovered About Normal Infant Sleep and Pediatric Sleep Medicine. American Journal of Physical Anthropology134(S45): 133-161. 


  • Ball, H.L. (2006). Parent-Infant Bed-sharing Behavior: effects of feeding type, and presence of father. Human Nature: an interdisciplinary biosocial perspective 17(3): 301-318. 
  • Ball, H.L., Ward-Platt, M.P., Heslop, E., Leech, S.J. & Brown, K.A. (2006). Randomised trial of infant sleep location on the postnatal ward. Archives of Disease in Childhood 91(12): 1005-1010. 
  • Ball, Helen L. (2006). Night-time infant care: cultural practice, evolution, and infant development. In Childrearing and infant care issues: a cross-cultural perspective. Pranee Liamputtong Melbourne, Australia: Nova. 47-61. 
  • Ball, Helen L. (2006). Caring for twin infants: sleeping arrangements and their implications. Evidence Based Midwifery 4(1): 10-16. 
  • Ball, H.L. (2006). Bed-sharing on the post-natal ward: breastfeeding and infant sleep safety. Paediatrics and Child Health11(Suppl A): 43A-46A. 


  • Ball, H.L., Volpe, L.E., Heslop, E. & Leech, S.J. (2005). Observing mother-infant sleep behaviour. Measuring Behavior 2005, Wageningen, NL, Noldus. 
  • Heslop, E., Ball, H.L. & Leech, S.J. (2005). Bedding-in and Rooming-in on the post-natal ward: breastfeeding initiation. Measuring Behavior 2005, Wageningen, NL, Noldus Information Technology. 


  • Blair, P.S. & Ball, H.L. (2004). The prevalence and characteristics associated with parent–infant bed-sharing in England. Archives of Disease in Childhood89: 1106-1110. 
  • Ball, H.L., Blair, P.S. & Ward-Platt, M.P. (2004). 'New' practice of bedsharing and risk of SIDS (letter). Lancet363(9420): 1558. 
  • Wailoo, M., Ball, H.L., Fleming, P.J. & Ward-Platt, M.P. (2004). Infants bed-sharing with mothers: helpful, harmful or don't we know? Archives of Disease in Childhood89(12): 1082-1083. 


  • Ball, H.L. (2003). Breastfeeding, bed-sharing and infant sleep. Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care 30(3): 181-188. 


  • Ball, H.L. (2002). Reasons to bed-share: why parents sleep with their infants. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 20(4): 207-222. 
  • Ball, H.L. (2002). Risks to infants of sharing the parental bed: a physiological & behavioural study. Final report to Scottish Cot Death Trust. Glasgow. 
  • Ball, H.L. (2002). Bed-sharing Research in Britain. Mothering Magazine (US)Sept. 
  • Ward-Platt, M.P. & Ball, H.L. (2002). Rooming-in at the Hospital: Assessing the Practical Considerations. Mothering Magazine (US) Sept(114). 


  • Ball, H.L. (2001). Triadic bed-sharing and infant temperature. Ambulatory Child Health28(1): 55-58. 
  • Ball, Helen L. & Panter-Brick, C. (2001). Child survival and the modulation of parental investment. In Reproductive Ecology and Human Evolution. Ellison, P. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 249-266.Blair, P. Fleming, P.J., 
  • Ball, H.L. & Ward-Platt, M.P. (2001). Surprised by publication (letter). Pediatrics108(5). 


  • Ball, H.L., Hooker, E. & Heslop, E. (2000). Night-time caregiving and parent-infant sleep strategies in the North East of England. Final Report to Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths. London. 
  • Ball, H.L., Hooker, E. & Kelly, P.J. (2000). Where will the baby sleep? Attitudes and practices of new and experienced parents regarding cosleeping with their newborn infants. In Annual Editions: Child Growth and Development. Junn E.N. & Boyatzis, C. Dushkin/McGraw Hill. 00/01. 
  • Ball, H., Hooker, E. & Kelly, P.J. (2000). Parent-Infant Cosleeping: fathers' roles and perspectives. Infant and Child Development9(2): 67-74. 
  • Ball, H.L. (2000). Babies and Infants Bed-Sharing. In Midwifery Practice in the Post-natal Period. Royal College of Midwives Royal College of Midwifes. 24-26. 
  • Hooker, E., Ball, H.L. & Kelly, P.J. (2000). Sleeping like a baby: parent-infant cosleeping in North Tees, England. Medical Anthropology19: 203-222. 


  • Ball, H.L., Hooker, E. & Kelly, P.J. (1999). Where will the baby sleep? Attitudes and practices of new and experienced parents regarding cosleeping with their new-born infants. American Anthropologist101(1): 143-151.